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IRB Rugby Ready

Tracking the trends of the modern game

A Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) provides a Player with authorisation to use a Prohibited Substance or Method to treat a legitimate medical condition/illness whilst continuing to play Rugby. Players with a documented medical condition requiring the use of a Prohibited Substance or Method are required to obtain a TUE. Without a TUE, Players risk committing an Anti-Doping Rule Violation, an offence that may result in a sanction regardless of the medical circumstances.

There is growing understanding of the nature of match injuries which occur in rugby union. However, the research conducted to date in the English game has focussed on injuries which have occurred at International and Premiership levels. While detailed information is available for Premiership rugby, it may not be appropriate to assume that these injury patterns reflect those in the Community game. Some of the different player and match characteristics which exist between Premiership and Community levels may influence injury type and frequency. However, it should also be considered that even within levels 3-9 there will be a range of playing abilities and possibly scope for differing injury patterns.

In order to provide information specific to the Community game, a programme of injury surveillance has been established which caters for this range of playing levels. The Community Rugby Injury Surveillance Project is run by a team at the University of Bath and funded by the RFU Injured Players Foundation on behalf of Community Rugby as part of a commitment by the RFU to reduce injuries within rugby. The Project involves the collection and analysis of information on injuries which occur during 1st XV matches in RFU playing levels 3-9.

The purpose of this research project is to firstly identify injury patterns within community rugby to understand more about such factors as the number of injuries occurring, the type of injuries, and how they happen. This information can help to inform possible intervention strategies for particularly common or severe injuries and to provide guidance on strategies for medical provision within clubs.

Fatalities and spinal cord injuries are high consequence, low incidence injuries that occur in collision team sports and individual sports, such as horse riding and gymnastics. It is incumbent on all stakeholders from governing bodies to individual athletes to manage the risks associated with these injuries through the introduction of appropriate risk mitigation strategies, such as the laws of the game, protective equipment or education and training programmes. The normal method for demonstrating that risks are managed effectively is through the process of risk assessment, which is an element within the broader framework of risk management. No activity is risk free and the process of risk management is not intended to reduce levels of risk to zero; however, it is generally regarded that in most aspects of life, there are some levels of risk that are acceptable and others that are unacceptable. In this context, the Health and Safety Executive in the UK has defined norms for what can be regarded as negligible, acceptable, tolerable and unacceptable levels of risk. An acceptable level of risk generally relates to the risk of a serious adverse consequence, such as a fatality or a spinal cord injury resulting in permanent neurological deficit, occurring on average between 0.1 and 2 times/100,000 people per year. The aims of this project were to assess the level of risk associated with catastrophic injuries in rugby union, to reach a conclusion about whether the level of risk is acceptable and to review current guidance on coaching and refereeing.

The scientific literature was reviewed in order to collect data on catastrophic injuries (defined here as fatalities and spinal cord injuries) sustained during rugby union activities in England (1956-2002) and other countries (1970-2005). In addition, equivalent data were collated for catastrophic injuries sustained in a range of other sports and non-sports activities. The probability of sustaining catastrophic injury in rugby union (number of events/100,000 exposed population per year) was compared with the probability associated with these other activities and with the Health and Safety Executive’s guidelines on negligible, acceptable, tolerable and unacceptable levels of risk.

The results indicated that for rugby union players in England, the risk of sustaining a catastrophic injury (0.84/100,000 per year) came within the Health and Safety Executive’s ‘acceptable region’ of risk (0.1 to 2/100,000 per year), whilst the average risk of catastrophic injury experienced by rugby players in other countries (4.6/100,000 per year) fell within the ‘tolerable region’ of risk (2 to 100/100,000 per year). The risk of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union in England was generally lower than that experienced in a wide range of other collision sports, such as ice hockey (4/100,000 per year), rugby league (2/100,000 per year) and American Football (1/100,000 per year). The risk of catastrophic injury in rugby union was comparable with that experienced by most people in UK work-related situations (0.8/100,000 per year) but less than that experienced by motorcyclists (190/100,000 per year), pedestrians (3.7/100,000 per year) and car occupants (2.9/100,000 per year).

The results presented here indicate that the laws of the game and the guidance provided by the RFU adequately manage the risk of catastrophic injury in rugby union in England. However, the Rugby Football Union should not be complacent, as there does not appear to be a coherent, multidisciplinary, game-wide strategy aimed at players, coaches and referees for managing the risk of catastrophic injuries. In addition, epidemiological data about these injuries in England depends on a voluntary reporting system by clubs and schools with little information collected about the specific nature or the causes of the injuries or the total population of rugby players exposed to the risks of injury. Without this type of information it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies for reducing the incidence of catastrophic injuries. The RFU’s Catastrophic Injury Task Group has recognised many of the existing procedural weaknesses and made recommendations to the RFU Management Board about how these issues could be addressed. The positive initiatives related to the management of catastrophic injuries that have been made by the RFU Medical and Coaching Groups should be supported and further developed by the RFU Management Board.

The risk of injury in many sports is high and therefore all stakeholders from sports governing bodies to individual athletes have a responsibility to manage these risks and, where possible, reduce the level of risk. Both UKSport (Fuller, 2004) and the Australian Sports Injury Prevention Taskforce (Department of Health and Ageing, 2003) advocate the application of risk management principles for managing the risks associated with sport.

The new dedicated website for the IRSN is now available at:

This document and more relating to the IRB’s Anti-Doping Testing Program can be found at:

IRB Statement on HIV

In this Policy:

In this Guideline the following phrases have the following meanings:

Summary Principles

IRB – Gender Identity Disorder (GID)

Introduction

Educate, Vaccinate, Evaluate

1. Match Venue Medical Facilities

A

1. ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association): Standard neurological classification of spinal cord injury

Contact
Description
Example
Arm

Tackler impedes/stops ball carrier using the upper limb(s)

Collision

Tackler deliberately impedes/stops the ball carrier without using the arm(s)

Jersey

Tackler holds the ball carrier’s jersey

Lift

Tackler raises the ball carrier’s hips above the ball carrier’s head

Shoulder

Tackler impedes/stops the ball carrier with his/her shoulder as the first point of contact followed by use of the arm(s)

Smother

Tackler uses the chest and wraps both arms around the ball carrier

Tap

Tackler trips the ball carrier with his/her hand on the lower limb below the knee

LAW 10 : FOUL PLAY

2006 Women’s World Cup, Edmonton, Alberta

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Executive Summary

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Audit shows 20% reduction in injury rate

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Biomechanics of the Rugby Scrum

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Purpose

Regulation 22 - Standard Relating to the Use of Artificial Rugby Turf

The International Rugby Board’s

Rugby as a sport was quick to adopt new generation (3G) artificial grass surfaces for the development of the game. IRB Regulation 22 was introduced in 2003 to ensure that 3G surfaces replicate the playing qualities of good quality natural grass. Climatic conditions in many countries where the game is played mean natural grass surfaces become badly worn and unsuitable in winter. In countries where the game is developing these surfaces offer ideal solutions to those parts of the world where climate or resources make good quality natural grass pitches difficult or impossible to achieve. In future it is hoped that the development of multi-use artificial turfs, where rugby and association football can be played, will provide a potential solution to facility operators wishing to maximise the use of their facilities through community use and those struggling with stadium microclimates that make the maintenance and growth of natural grass difficult.

Overview of paper

Regulation 12 - Provisions relating to players’ dress

BrandStyleSizes
Adidas Japan K.K.RG HeadguardL, M, S
Airowear Ltd.Airodynamix HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Albion Hat and Cap Co Pty LtdEliteS,M, L, XL
Albion Hat and Cap Co Pty LtdPro ClubS, M, L, XL
Atout PiqueShurikenXXS, XS, S, M, L
AzzuriAzzuri HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Barbarian Rugby Wear Inc.Barbarian HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
BarnettHeadgear HeatXS S M L XL
BarnettHeadgear HeatproXS S M L XL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedAirflow HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedClub PlusXL, L, M, S/LB, XS/MB
BOES IncorporatedRugby HeadgearS, M, L
Canterbury (by Body Armour)10/10 ArmourliteXS, S, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)20/20 HoneycombXS, S, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)30/30 VentilatorXS, S, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Armourlite II HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Club 1030MB/XS, S/LB, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Cotton Oxford 1JR, SM, LM
Canterbury (by Body Armour)JetstreamXL, L, M, S
Canterbury (by Body Armour)RaptorJR, SM, LM
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Asics HG8303XL, L, M, S
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Headgear HG8306XS, S, M, L, XL
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Makura HG8303XL, L, M, S
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Puma HeadgearS, L, XL
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Teamplay ShosholozaXL, L, M, S, XS
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Webb Ellis Test HeadguardL, XS
Contact Sports SpecialistsHeadguardYouth, S, M, L
Contact Sports SpecialistsTaiaha HeadgearS, M, L
Convert Co. Ltd.Headgear Art No. H1090M, L, XL
Decathlon S.A.Kipsta R300XS, XXS
Descente Ltd.Umbro HeadgearM, L
Flash S.A.BeRugbe Ultra Lite HeadgearS, M, L
Flash S.A.Ultra Lite Headgear (Item 1008)S, M, L
Force XVHeadguardYouth, S, M, L
Gilbert RugbyAtomic HeadgearSB, MB, LB, S, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyAttackXL, L, M, S
Gilbert RugbyBraincellLB, MB, SB, XL, L, M, S
Gilbert RugbyCompositeS, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyDimension HeadguardL
Gilbert RugbyEvolution XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyTriflex HeadguardS, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyVengeance IIS, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyVengeance V3 HeadguardS, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyVirtuo HeadguardXL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyVX CellSB,MB,LB,S,M,L XL
Gilbert RugbyVX5 HeadguardXL, L, M, S, LB
Gilbert RugbyXact HeadguardSB, MB, LB, S, M, L, XL
GoldSeal Int. Ltd.Head ProtectorS, M, L, XL
Gray-Nicholls PTY Ltd.Steeden Union HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Haka New Zealand LtdBodyshock Rugby HeadgearJunior, Senior
Han’s SportsHans HeadgearS,M,L
Head PguardLegend 2XS, S, M, L, XL
I-Jay/PageantKukri, George SimpkinS, L
I-Jay/PageantKukri/George Simpkin/ Summit/Proact/Gee HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Impact RugbyV2L, M, S, XS
Impact RugbyWarriorXS, S, M, L
JJB SportsCotton Traders Bionic HeadguardLB, S, M, L
KipstaR300M, S, XS
KipstaR300 2010XL, L, S, XS, XXS
KipstaR500 XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
KipstaR700XL, L, M, S
KooGaDunedinB, S, M, L
KooGaDunedin Airtech XL, L, M, S
KooGaDunedin Airtech (different colourway)M
KooGaDunedin Airtech LoopXL, L, M, S
KooGaDunedin Junior Loop HeadguardLB, MB, SB
KooGa Dunedin.comMDB
KooGaEvaporexLB, S, M, L
KooGaKV2 HeadgearS, M, L
KooGaNebular HeadgearS, M, L, XL
KooGaRam HeadgearXS, S, M, L
KooGaShadow 76 HeadgearS,M,L
KooGaShadow II HeadguardL, M, S, XS
KooGaShadow III TBT HeadguardL, M, S, XS
KooGaVictor HeadgearS, M, L and L Boys
Laboratoire Sober S.A.RG-CPI HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Le Coq SportifHeadgearM, L, XL
Lindbergh Trading Co. LtdLindbergh HeadgearX, L, M
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 04 HeadgearS, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 05 HeadgearS, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 07 HeadgearXL, L, M, S, XS, 2XS, 3XS
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 2010 Rugby HeadguardS, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 2011 Rugby HeadguardXXL, XL, L, M, S
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas HeadgearS, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas S1407HG001XL, L, M, S, XS
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno 2008 Rugby HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno 2014XXL, XL, L, M, S
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno Headgear 2010S, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno Rugby HeadgearXXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno Rugby Headgear 2011XXL, XL, L, M, S
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPatrick Rugby Head ProtectorS, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPowerCat HelmetXL, L, M, S, XS,
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPuma 2007XS, S, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPuma Rugby HelmetS, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPuma V – KonstruktXXS. L
Longway Enterprise Co LtdRugby HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdRugby HelmetXS, S, M, L
Macron S.p.A.Macron HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Madison Sports Pty LtdAir Flo HeadgearXS, S, M, L
Madison Sports Pty LtdCoolmaxYouth, S, M, L
Madison Sports Pty LtdElite Rugby Head GuardS, M, L
Madison Sports Pty LtdSuper HeadguardS, M, L
Mitre SportsCool Max ProS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsHead GearS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsSiegeS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsZoneS, M, L, XL
Mould A Foam ccHeadgear RatelXS, S, M, L
Mr Price Group LtdLeague HeadgearS, M, L
Mr Price Group LtdPro HeadgearS, M, L
OPRO InternationalOproXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
OptimumExtreme HeadgearS, M, L, LBoys
OptimumFusionS, LB, SB
OptimumHed Web ProXXS, XS
OptimumHedweb Classic TribalXL
OptimumHedweb Junior (Boys)S, L
OptimumHedweb-ClassicS, M, L, LBoys
OptimumHedweb-ProXS, S, M, L
OptimumInfernoL, M, S, LB/XS, SB/XXS
OptimumKipsta R300 HeadgearXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL (BSI) 05
OptimumKipsta R300 HeadgearXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumKipsta R500 CasqueLboys, S, M, L
OptimumMatrixS, M, L and L Boys
OptimumPro-Touch HeadgearXS, S, M, L
OptimumPulseXXS, XS, S, M, L,
Orbit Sports Manufacturers ccStormForce HeadguardS, M, L, XL
Orifu Co. Ltd., Rugby GoodsOrifu HeadgearM, L
Paladin Sports Technology Pty LtdGreat HelmXL, L, M, S, XS
PlaymakerGamebreaker HeadgearM, L, XL
Playsafe Sports Pty. LtdFrontliner HeadgearJunior-S, Junior-M
Primo Play LtdThe LegionXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Pro-TecHead ProtectorXS, S, M, L
ProLineHead GearXS, S, M, L
PromilesProfiler HeadgearM, L, XL
Protective Sports ApparelChill HeadgearS, M, L
Protective Sports ApparelShocktop HeadgearS, M, L
Reliance Sporting GoodsAchilles Pro Lite HeadgearS, M, L
Reliance Sporting GoodsReliance Pro Elite HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Rhino Rugby LtdRhino HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Rhino Rugby LtdRhino Skin HeadguardS, M, L, XL
RichterPredator PRH1S, M, L
RugbytechStyle 1XS, S, M, L, X
RugbytechStyle 2 – Mizuno and NovelasticS, M, L
RugbytechStyle 3 – AdidasS, M, L, XL
Samurai SportswearContour Elite HeadguardXS, S, M, L, XL
Saturnino Cabezon SAICIyFProcer #335 HeadgearS, M, L, XL
SceptreHeadgearM, L
SceptreHeadgear SP – 277S, M, L, XL
ScuttiHeadguardXS, S, M, L
Shock Doctor IncShockskin Adjustable Rugby Headgear 497XL, L, M, S and Youth
Shock Doctor IncShockskin Adjustable Rugby Headgear 498XL, L, M, S and Youth
Silver Fern New ZealandHead ProtectorS, M, L, XL
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdBoes Inc. Black TigerXL, L, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdBurrda Tech HeadguardXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdCor SportX,L, L, M
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdForce XVXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdHart ‘Attack’ Head GearL, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdHippo RugbyL, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdImpactL, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdKappaXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdKukriXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdProactXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdProtouch XL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdR80L, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdRugbyGirlL, M and S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdShield (Zebra) HeadguardXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdStash SportswearM, S, XS, XXS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdStruddys Pro HeadguardXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdVetoL, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdX-BladesXL, L, M, S, ,XS, XXS
Sportopia SAWasp ProS, M, L
Sports Factory Consulting LtdBionixL, M, S, LB
Sports Factory Consulting LtdCotton Traders Bionic HeadguardL, M, S and LB
Sports Resources Ltd.Headgear HG1800S, M, L, XL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Armaflex 3D HeadgearL Boys, S, M, L, XL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.McDavid Hex HelmetXL, L, M, S, LB, MB
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Samurai Supalite HeadgearL Boys, S, M, L, XL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Webb Ellis Airflex Cell HeadgearL Boys, S, M, L, XL
Suzuki Sports Company Ltd.Head GearS, M, L, XL, XXL
TaggHead ProtectorXS, S, M, L
Walsh Sports Shoe ManufacturersHeadguardS, M, L
Wearable HeritageKoruS, M, L
Wearwulf Sportsgear PTY LtdHead GuardXS, S, M, L, XL
Wearwulf Sportsgear PTY LtdSnakeskin HeadgearS, M, L
Webb Ellis LimitedSE2M
Wellpower Sports Co Ltd  Headgear HG2214   XS, S, M, L
Xtreme Sports GearXtreme HeadgearM, L
BrandStyleSizes
Barbarian Rugby Wear Inc.Protective Shoulder VestS, M, L, XL, XXL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedClub VestXL, L, M, S, XS
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedDominant VestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop 2 XXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop 2 PlusXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop Elite Long SleeveS, M, L, XL, XXL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop Elite Short SleeveS, M, L, XL, XXL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop PlusXXL, XL, L, M, S
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop Pro VestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexlite VestXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedNewTech VestXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedShocktop VestXXL, XL, L, M, S,
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedStrike VestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedTech ImpactXXL ,XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedTech PlusXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, LB, MB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedZ Vest/ Defender VestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
BOES IncorporatedRugby Shoulder PadsL, M S
CanterburyTech Shoulder Vest8-10, 12-14, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Chest Protection Vest (Crew Neck)S, M, L, XL, XXL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Club Vest - Style: 1038XS, S, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Honeycomb Tech Shoulder Vest (Crew Neck)S, M, L, XL, XXL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Honeycomb Tech Shoulder Vest (V-Neck)S, M, L, XL
Colaro SportsCore-X (Impact Rugby)XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, LB, MB, SB, XSB
Colaro SportsSplash Women/Ladies Shoulder PadsXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Colaro SportsSwag Men Shoulder PadsXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Comax Shoulder Padding (CP8314)XS, S, M, L, XL
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Puma Shoulder PaddingL, XL, XXL
Contact Sports SpecialistsShoulder PadsS, M, L
Contact Sports SpecialistsTaiaha Shoulder VestL, M
Convert Co. Ltd.Shoulder Padding Art No F1858XL, Free Size
Flash S.A.BeRugbe Shoulder ProtectorXS, S, M, L, XL
Flash S.A.BeRugbe Shoulder/Biceps/Chest ProtectorXS, S, M, L, XL
Flash S.A.Shoulder Protector (Item 705)XS, S, M, L, XL
Flash S.A.Shoulder/Biceps/Chest Protector (Item 706)XS, S, M, L, XL
Force XVT.RexS, M, L, XL
Force XVTriceratopS, M, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyAC and Shoulder PaddingXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyAtomic ZenonS, M, L, XL, XXL, SB, MB, LB
Gilbert RugbyAtomic Zenon V2XXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB,SB
Gilbert RugbyBlitz/Atomic V2XXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyCharger XactXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
Gilbert RugbyChieftainSB,MB,LB,S,M,L,XL,XXL
Gilbert RugbyChieftain V2XXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyMercuryXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB , SB
Gilbert RugbyQuestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, S
Gilbert RugbySynergie 12SB,MB,LB,S,M,L,XL,XXL
Gilbert RugbyTanktopXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyTri-FlexS, M, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyTri-Flex Super-LiteM, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyTri-Lite Tank TopS Boys, M Boys, XS, S, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyTriflex Charger (II) Shoulder GarmentXS, S, M. L, XL
Gilbert RugbyTriflex Charger Shoulder GarmentsXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyTriflex ProXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
Gilbert RugbyTriliteXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyTrilite XtraXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyVirtuo 12XXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyVX5 HeadguardXL, L, S, LB
Gilbert RugbyXact10SB,MB,LB,S,M,L XL,XXL
GoldSeal Int. Ltd.VestXS, S, M, L, XL
Gray-Nicholls PTY Ltd.Steeden Shoulder PaddingYouth, XS, S, M, L, XL
Guangzhou Tien Sporting GoodsTF PW Pad Top PXXL, XL, L, M, S
Han’s SportsHans Shoulder PaddingM,L-XL, XXL-EL
I-Jay/PageantMens Shoulder Pads George Simpkin, Kukri, Proact, GeeS, M, L, XL, XXL
IndtexCarisbrook, MizunoM, L, XL/O
Jenfaith Development LtdV Konstruct Protection Shirt 650939L
Jenfaith Development LtdV Konstruct Protection Shirt 650940L, 152
JJB SportsCotton Traders Bionic Body ArmourLB, S, M, L, XL
JJB SportsCotton Traders Bionic Body Armour L/SLB, S, M, L, XL
JJB SportsCotton Traders Bionic Impact Body ArmourLB, S, M, L, XL
KipstaKipsta R300XXS, XS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
KipstaKipsta R500XS, XXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
KipstaKipsta R700XXL, XL, L, M, S
KipstaR300XXL, XL, L, M, S
KipstaR300XXL, XL, L, M, S
KipstaR500XS, XXS
KipstaR500 JuniorXS, XXS
KipstaR500 SeniorXXL, XL, L, M, S
KipstaShoulder Pad LightXXL, XL, L, M, S
KooGaA/C Glove PadS, M, L, XL, XXL
KooGaCenturianM, L, XL
KooGaCenturian IIM, L, XL
KooGaDominatorXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
KooGaEnforcerXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
KooGaEVX IIIXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
KooGaEVX VXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
KooGaEVX VIIIXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
KooGaImpact VestM, L, XL
KooGaimpact Vest IIXXL, XL, L, M
KooGaIPS IIIXXL, XL, L, M, S
KooGaIPS JuniorLB, MB, SB
KooGaIPS VXXL, XL, L, M, S
KooGaIPS VIIXXL, XL, L, M, S
KooGaIPS XIIXXL, XL, L, M, S
KooGaPro ExtraS, M, L, XL, XXl
KooGaPro PadXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
KooGaPro PlusS, M, L, XL, XXL
KooGaSamuraiS, M, L, XL, XXL
KooGaSamurai IIS, M, L, XL, XXL
KooGaWarriorL boys, S, M, L, XL
KooGaWarrior IIIL, M, S, Youth
KooGaWarrior IIIXXL, XL, L, M, S, Y, LB, MB
KooGaZulu IIXL, L, M, S, LB
KooGaZulu Shoulder PaddingL boys, S, M, L, XL
Kukri SportsShoulder PaddingS, M, L, XL
Le Coq SportifShoulder PaddingM, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 05 Shoulder PaddingS, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno Shoulder GuardXS, S, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno Shoulder PaddingS, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPuma Big CatM, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdRB Protect TopXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdRugby ShirtS, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdRugby VestXS, S, M, L, XL
Macron S.p.A.Macron Italy Rugby ShirtM, L, XL
Madison Sports Pty LtdMagicJ/S, M, L, XL, XXL
Madison Sports Pty LtdScorpion Protective VestSB, MB, LB, S, M, L, XL
Madison Sports Pty LtdSecond PhaseS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsAcademyS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsDestroyerXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Mitre SportsDestroyer IIXS, S, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsRaidS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsSkirmishS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsVenti Max ProS, M, L, XL
Mr Price Group LtdLeague Shoulder PadsXS, S, M, L, XL
Mr Price Group LtdPro Shoulder PadsXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
OPRO InternationalOproXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
OptimumBlitzXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, SB, Mini
OptimumExtremeS Boys, L Boys, XXXS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumExtreme 10 Shoulder PaddingSB, LB, S, M, L, XL
OptimumExtreme Thinskin GripperXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
OptimumFaz PadsS, L Boys,S, M, L, XL, XXL Adult
OptimumFusionLB, MB, SB
OptimumInfernoXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB, Mini
OptimumKipsta R300XXS, XS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumKipsta R500 9 ProtectionsJNR, M, L, XL
OptimumMatrixS Boys, L Boys, S, M L, XL
OptimumOptimum Five Pad Tribal LongSB,LB,S,M,L,XL,XXL
OptimumOriginXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB , SB
OptimumPro Touch Shoulder PaddingXXS, XS, M, L, XL
OptimumPro-Touch Shoulder PaddingXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumPulseXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumShok TopS, L (boys), S, M, L, XL, XXL (Adult)
OptimumShok Top ProS, M, L
OptimumThinskin Shok TopXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
OptimumTribal Tri TopXXL
OptimumTribal Tri TopXS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumVelocityXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Orbit Sports Manufacturers ccHeadstartXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS, XXXS
Paladin Sports Technology Pty LtdPauldronL,M, S, XS, LB, MB, SB, XSB
Primo Play LtdThe LegionXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Pro-TecPro-VestS, M, L, XL
Pro-TecStandard VestXS, S, M, L, XL
ProguardProguard Shoulder PadsJunior - Mini, Mod, M, L,Adult - XS, S, M, L
ProLineShoulder GloveS/M, L/XL
Protective Sports ApparelShock TopXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Rhino Rugby LtdRhino Skin Shoulder PadsS, M, L, XL, XXL
RichterPredator! Padded Match VestXS, S, M, L, XL
RichterPredator! Short Sleeve VestS, M, L
RugbytechAdult Short Vest, Rugbyech Cool Mesh, Novelastic ProS, M, L, XL, XXL
RugbytechJuniorS, M, L, XL
RugbytechMatador Shoulder GarmentS, M, L, XL, XXL
RugbytechRugbytech Chessi Vest, Adidas Short Vest, Novelastic Short Vest,Mizuno Short VestS, M, L, XL, XXL
Samurai SportswearAdult Contour Elite Shoulder PadXL, L, M, S
Samurai SportswearContour Elite Shoulder PadS, M, L, XL
Samurai SportswearContour Elite Shoulder PadXS, LB
Samurai SportswearKids Contour Elite Shoulder PadLB, XS
SceptreShoulder Padding SP-3102M, L, O
SceptreSP- 3103XL, L, M and S
ScuttiCombat VestXS, S, M, L, XL
ScuttiCommando VestS, M, L, XL
Second Skins (Pty) LtdHeadstart2XS, XS, S, M, L, XL, 2XL
Shock Doctor IncShockskin 2 Pad Rugby Shoulder Pad 490XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, Youth L, M
Shock Doctor IncShockskin 2 Pad Rugby Shoulder Pad 491XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, Youth L, M
Silver Fern New ZealandSilver Fern VestXS, S, M, L, XL
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdBurrda Tech Shoulder VestXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdCor SportXL, L, M
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdHart ‘Attack’ Body ShieldL, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdHippo RugbyM, LB, MB
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdKappaXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdProactXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdProtouchXXXL, XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdR80L, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdStruddys Pro Shoulder PadXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdX BladesXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Sportopia SAStrikeforceXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Sportopia SATerminatorXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Sports Factory Consulting LtdBionix Impact (Short Sleeve)XL, L, M, S and LB
Sports Factory Consulting LtdCotton Traders Bionic Body Armour (Long Sleeve)XL, L, M, S, and LB
Sports Factory Consulting LtdCotton Traders Bionic Impact Body Armour (Short Sleeve)XL, L, M, S, and LB
Sports ResourcesSG200XL, L, M, S
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Armaflex SP3 Shoulder PaddingS Boys, M Boys, L Boys, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Armaflex SP1 Shoulder PaddingL Boys, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Armaflex SP2 Shoulder PaddingXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.LITE Shoulder PaddingXL, L, M, S, LB, SB
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.MAX Shoulder PaddingXXL, XL, L, M, S
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.PRO Shoulder PaddingXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Samurai SPX1 Shoulder PaddingL Boys, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Samurai SPX2 Shoulder PaddingXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Samurai SPX3 Shoulder PaddingS Boys, M Boys, L Boys, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Webb Ellis Airflex Pro Shoulder PaddingXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Webb Ellis Airflex Shoulder PaddingS Boys, M Boys, L Boys, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Terminator Clothing LtdTerminator TopsMini, Youth, Large, XL, XXL
TSG International Ltd700747 Protection ShirtL
TSG International Ltd700747 Shoulder Padding and GarmentL
TSG International Ltd700748 Protection ShirtM
TSG International Ltdv-Konstrukt ShirtL
Uma InternationalAramisSmall. Large
Under ArmourMens Scar Club MPZ TopXXXXL, XXXL, XXL, XL, L, M, S
Under ArmourMens Scar Pro MPZ TopXXXXL, XXXL, XXL, XL, L, M, S
Vulkan (Medipost)Padded VestsXS(Youth), S, M, L, XL
Walsh Sports Shoe ManufacturersUni-PadXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Webb Ellis LimitedImpax ProS, L, XL
Webb Ellis LimitedResilioXS, S, M, L, XL
Webb Ellis LimitedSpectralL, M, S, LB, MB
Wellpower Sports Co Ltd  CP2219 (without sleeve)XS, S, M, L, XL
Wellpower Sports Co Ltd  CP2221 (with Sleeve)XS, S, M, L, XL
Xtreme Sports GearXtreme Shoulder PadM, L
BrandStyleSizes
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedCanterburys Womens Vest Z012025S, M, L, XL, XXL
FionnFionn Body Protector8/10, 10/12, 12/14, 14/16, 16/18
Gilbert RugbyImpact Protector BraS, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyTriflex WomensL, XL
GoldSeal Int. Ltd.Ladies VestXS, S, M, L
I-Jay/PageantGeorge Simpkin, Kukri, Proact, GeeS, M, L, XL
Kukri SportsWomens Shoulder PadsS, M, L, XL
Lolly PerformanceThe Attack HerXXXS, XXS, XS, S, M, L, XL, XXL, XXXL
RugbytechLadies Long VestS, M, L, XL
Silver Fern New ZealandSilver Fern Ladies VestXS, S, M, L
Terminator Clothing LtdEnforcerS12/14, M16/18, L18+

This document provides outline guidance for the appropriate development of a site suitable for Rugby played on natural turf.

Lack of appropriate planning in the early stages of a development can be costly in the short term and adversely affect the sustainability of a facility over the medium and long term. A poorly considered proposal that results in the development of a mediocre facility will discourage users and often result in increased maintenance costs. It is therefore important that any proposed facility is planned in a logical and conscientious manner.

The information contained within this document does not attempt to give detailed guidance on a site specific basis for the design, construction and maintenance of all facilities and it is strongly recommended that further advice be sought from qualified, experienced, independent professionals who can offer detailed recommendations based on site specific information.

A technical site feasibility study should be completed by a competent consultant in all but the smallest of development projects.

Great care should be exercised when designing any type of pitch. The conditions found on-site and the anticipated levels of use must form the basis for the proposals, but modified by the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction process, the timetable proposed and funding. A one-size-fits-all approach is never cost effective.

The development of a site is usually carried out by contractors, preferably a specialist in pitch construction. A pitch sub-contractor may be hired to undertake the pitch element of any development if it is part of a larger contract.

There are usually two main approaches to pitch procurement and these can be found below.

In many countries, Rugby is played in winter when grass growth is minimal and weather conditions less than ideal. Poor quality surfaces mean that players are unable to experience a satisfactory standard of play which can influence the outcome of a match, a situation that is unacceptable at the highest levels of the Game. Furthermore pitch maintenance can be a challenge when drainage compromises pitch performance.

However, upgrading a poor quality pitch or constructing a new one does not necessarily solve the drainage and usage problems. Proper drainage design is an essential item of quality pitch design, along with the projected intensity of use. Drainage design must take account of local rainfall statistics and defines what eventualities are being catered for so that these may be incorporated in to the final pitch design process.

Poor construction, ineffective maintenance and overuse will eventually lead to deterioration in pitch performance, poor drainage and unacceptable playing conditions.

Unless the existing ground contours are acceptable, some form of grading may be necessary. The extent of the grading works will be confirmed by the detailed topographical survey. In certain circumstances, this may require the removal of the topsoil with adjustment made in the underlying subsoil.

Rock, running sand and peat will all require specialist treatment but these hazards should have been identified during the feasibility stage. Soils should only be moved when ground and weather conditions are sufficiently dry.

Normally final gradients will depend upon local site conditions but a general rule is to achieve a maximum gradient of 1:80 – 1:100 along the length of the pitch and 1:40 – 1:50 across the field of play. Occasionally pitches may be crowned with a central higher spine running between the goals and a fall to either wing.

Pitch design can take many different forms dependent upon site conditions and the client’s requirements for performance. The more common forms of pitch design are discussed in the following section.

It is recommended that all materials are approved for their specific use before any construction work commences.

A successful development or upgrading project will only occur if the project is planned and executed effectively. As part of the procurement and pitch development process there are four key stages. These are design, tendering, contractor appointment and site development. All stages are equally important in the successful delivery of the project.

The overall responsibility for the delivery of the project from concept to completion often falls to a volunteer member or an appointed project manager.

The project manager takes on the responsibility for the delivery and execution of the project and the processes associated with it. These processes can be categorised as follows:

Any natural turf pitch requires maintenance to produce a surface of acceptable quality for the game played upon it. Rugby requires a profile that is adequately drained to allow play in all, but the most extreme, conditions.

The components of a management package for Rugby revolve around the basics of mowing and aeration. Sward growth characteristics will also be dependent upon these elements but also turfgrass nutrition and irrigation management especially, in the drier summer months when sward recovery is required. There are other aspects of maintenance for which the groundsman is responsible, including weed and pest control, overseeding, divoting, returfing and top dressing.

The playing quality of a sports surface is of fundamental importance to player safety as well as influencing the player’s enjoyment of the game. The quality of the surface can be described according to the interaction of the player with the surface and the interaction of the ball with the surface. In Rugby, the former is more important in relation to running, scrummaging, tackling and diving on the surface.

In addition to assessing playing quality, agronomic factors should also be considered such as the grass cover, moisture content and organic matter as these can have a strong bearing on playing quality.

The breeding of grasses has developed significantly in recent years and the industry now has a wide range of grasses available for selection. Grasses are generally made up of families of species with sub species and cultivars. Some species of grass have been significantly modified in order to give particular cultivars certain characteristics. Grass selection at construction and, indeed choosing which grass species you wish to introduce and encourage, will significantly impact upon the type, nature and quality of pitch produced.

In order to select the correct grasses several factors should be considered, including climate, local weather conditions and the length of the growing season. The following section gives guidance in the potential choices available, but it is recommended that the final selection is made in consultation with a qualified agronomist.

  • Baker, S. W., Gibbs, R. J., & Adams, W. A. (1992). Case studies of the performance of different designs of winter games pitches. I. Playing quality and usage. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 68, 20-32.
  • Sport England (2000). In Design Guidance Note, Natural Turf for Sport. Sport England publications, PO Box 255, Wetherby LS23 7LZ.
  • Thornton, D.J. (1978). The construction and drainage of some specified sports field playing surfaces. PhD Thesis, University College Wales, Aberstwyth.
  • McClements, I. & Baker, S.W. (1994) The playing quality of natural turf Rugby pitches. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 70, 29-43.

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