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World Rugby has funded research into the forces present on each player in the scrum in an effort to minimise risk of injury and protect player welfare.

World Rugby uses research to ensure that any Law changes are evidence-based and thoroughly trialled prior to implementation

Introduction

Tracking the trends of the modern game

A Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) provides a Player with authorisation to use a Prohibited Substance or Method to treat a legitimate medical condition/illness whilst continuing to play Rugby. Players with a documented medical condition requiring the use of a Prohibited Substance or Method are required to obtain a TUE. Without a TUE, Players risk committing an Anti-Doping Rule Violation, an offence that may result in a sanction regardless of the medical circumstances.

There is growing understanding of the nature of match injuries which occur in rugby union. However, the research conducted to date in the English game has focussed on injuries which have occurred at International and Premiership levels. While detailed information is available for Premiership rugby, it may not be appropriate to assume that these injury patterns reflect those in the Community game. Some of the different player and match characteristics which exist between Premiership and Community levels may influence injury type and frequency. However, it should also be considered that even within levels 3-9 there will be a range of playing abilities and possibly scope for differing injury patterns.

In order to provide information specific to the Community game, a programme of injury surveillance has been established which caters for this range of playing levels. The Community Rugby Injury Surveillance Project is run by a team at the University of Bath and funded by the RFU Injured Players Foundation on behalf of Community Rugby as part of a commitment by the RFU to reduce injuries within rugby. The Project involves the collection and analysis of information on injuries which occur during 1st XV matches in RFU playing levels 3-9.

The purpose of this research project is to firstly identify injury patterns within community rugby to understand more about such factors as the number of injuries occurring, the type of injuries, and how they happen. This information can help to inform possible intervention strategies for particularly common or severe injuries and to provide guidance on strategies for medical provision within clubs.

Fatalities and spinal cord injuries are high consequence, low incidence injuries that occur in collision team sports and individual sports, such as horse riding and gymnastics. It is incumbent on all stakeholders from governing bodies to individual athletes to manage the risks associated with these injuries through the introduction of appropriate risk mitigation strategies, such as the laws of the game, protective equipment or education and training programmes. The normal method for demonstrating that risks are managed effectively is through the process of risk assessment, which is an element within the broader framework of risk management. No activity is risk free and the process of risk management is not intended to reduce levels of risk to zero; however, it is generally regarded that in most aspects of life, there are some levels of risk that are acceptable and others that are unacceptable. In this context, the Health and Safety Executive in the UK has defined norms for what can be regarded as negligible, acceptable, tolerable and unacceptable levels of risk. An acceptable level of risk generally relates to the risk of a serious adverse consequence, such as a fatality or a spinal cord injury resulting in permanent neurological deficit, occurring on average between 0.1 and 2 times/100,000 people per year. The aims of this project were to assess the level of risk associated with catastrophic injuries in rugby union, to reach a conclusion about whether the level of risk is acceptable and to review current guidance on coaching and refereeing.

The scientific literature was reviewed in order to collect data on catastrophic injuries (defined here as fatalities and spinal cord injuries) sustained during rugby union activities in England (1956-2002) and other countries (1970-2005). In addition, equivalent data were collated for catastrophic injuries sustained in a range of other sports and non-sports activities. The probability of sustaining catastrophic injury in rugby union (number of events/100,000 exposed population per year) was compared with the probability associated with these other activities and with the Health and Safety Executive’s guidelines on negligible, acceptable, tolerable and unacceptable levels of risk.

The results indicated that for rugby union players in England, the risk of sustaining a catastrophic injury (0.84/100,000 per year) came within the Health and Safety Executive’s ‘acceptable region’ of risk (0.1 to 2/100,000 per year), whilst the average risk of catastrophic injury experienced by rugby players in other countries (4.6/100,000 per year) fell within the ‘tolerable region’ of risk (2 to 100/100,000 per year). The risk of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union in England was generally lower than that experienced in a wide range of other collision sports, such as ice hockey (4/100,000 per year), rugby league (2/100,000 per year) and American Football (1/100,000 per year). The risk of catastrophic injury in rugby union was comparable with that experienced by most people in UK work-related situations (0.8/100,000 per year) but less than that experienced by motorcyclists (190/100,000 per year), pedestrians (3.7/100,000 per year) and car occupants (2.9/100,000 per year).

The results presented here indicate that the laws of the game and the guidance provided by the RFU adequately manage the risk of catastrophic injury in rugby union in England. However, the Rugby Football Union should not be complacent, as there does not appear to be a coherent, multidisciplinary, game-wide strategy aimed at players, coaches and referees for managing the risk of catastrophic injuries. In addition, epidemiological data about these injuries in England depends on a voluntary reporting system by clubs and schools with little information collected about the specific nature or the causes of the injuries or the total population of rugby players exposed to the risks of injury. Without this type of information it is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies for reducing the incidence of catastrophic injuries. The RFU’s Catastrophic Injury Task Group has recognised many of the existing procedural weaknesses and made recommendations to the RFU Management Board about how these issues could be addressed. The positive initiatives related to the management of catastrophic injuries that have been made by the RFU Medical and Coaching Groups should be supported and further developed by the RFU Management Board.

The risk of injury in many sports is high and therefore all stakeholders from sports governing bodies to individual athletes have a responsibility to manage these risks and, where possible, reduce the level of risk. Both UKSport (Fuller, 2004) and the Australian Sports Injury Prevention Taskforce (Department of Health and Ageing, 2003) advocate the application of risk management principles for managing the risks associated with sport.

1.

Introduction

Session 1 - IRB Update

World Rugby Statement on HIV

World Rugby has established a World Rugby Research Strategy to provide structure and support to the identification and implementation of World Rugby research priorities. The strategy involves the input of four groups:

Executive Summary

1.

Introduction

Independent Concussion Advisory Group

Executive Summary

Introduction

World Rugby – Gender Identity Disorder (GID)

Introduction

Educate, Vaccinate, Evaluate

1. Match Venue Medical Facilities

A

1. ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association): Standard neurological classification of spinal cord injury

Contact
Description
Example
Arm

Tackler impedes/stops ball carrier using the upper limb(s)

Collision

Tackler deliberately impedes/stops the ball carrier without using the arm(s)

Jersey

Tackler holds the ball carrier’s jersey

Lift

Tackler raises the ball carrier’s hips above the ball carrier’s head

Shoulder

Tackler impedes/stops the ball carrier with his/her shoulder as the first point of contact followed by use of the arm(s)

Smother

Tackler uses the chest and wraps both arms around the ball carrier

Tap

Tackler trips the ball carrier with his/her hand on the lower limb below the knee

LAW 10 : FOUL PLAY

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Guideline summary

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Guideline summary

Session 1 - Player Welfare Initiatives

1.

Introduction

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

1.

Introduction

Overview of paper

Audit shows 20% reduction in injury rate

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Biomechanics of the Rugby Scrum

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Overview of paper

Purpose

Regulation 22 - Standard Relating to the Use of Artificial Rugby Turf

World Rugby’s

Rugby as a sport was quick to adopt new generation (3G) artificial grass surfaces for the development of the game. World Rugby Regulation 22 was introduced in 2003 to ensure that 3G surfaces replicate the playing qualities of good quality natural grass. Climatic conditions in many countries where the game is played mean natural grass surfaces become badly worn and unsuitable in winter. In countries where the game is developing these surfaces offer ideal solutions to those parts of the world where climate or resources make good quality natural grass pitches difficult or impossible to achieve. In future it is hoped that the development of multi-use artificial turfs, where rugby and association football can be played, will provide a potential solution to facility operators wishing to maximise the use of their facilities through community use and those struggling with stadium microclimates that make the maintenance and growth of natural grass difficult.

Overview of paper

Regulation 12 - Provisions relating to players’ dress

BrandStyleSizes
Adidas Japan K.K.RG HeadguardL, M, S
Airowear Ltd.Airodynamix HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Albion Hat and Cap Co Pty LtdEliteS,M, L, XL
Albion Hat and Cap Co Pty LtdPro ClubS, M, L, XL
Atout PiqueShurikenXXS, XS, S, M, L
AzzuriAzzuri HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Barbarian Rugby Wear Inc.Barbarian HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
BarnettHeadgear HeatXS S M L XL
BarnettHeadgear HeatproXS S M L XL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedAirflow HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedClub PlusXL, L, M, S/LB, XS/MB
BOES IncorporatedRugby HeadgearS, M, L
Canterbury (by Body Armour)10/10 ArmourliteXS, S, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)20/20 HoneycombXS, S, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)30/30 VentilatorXS, S, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Armourlite II HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Club 1030MB/XS, S/LB, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Cotton Oxford 1JR, SM, LM
Canterbury (by Body Armour)JetstreamXL, L, M, S
Canterbury (by Body Armour)RaptorJR, SM, LM
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Asics HG8303XL, L, M, S
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Asics HG8365XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Headgear HG8306XS, S, M, L, XL
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.HG 8369 ElitetekXL, L, M, S, XS
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Makura HG8303XL, L, M, S
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Puma HeadgearS, L, XL
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.SpoxXL, L, M, S, XS
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Spox HG8368XL, L, M, S, XS
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Teamplay ShosholozaXL, L, M, S, XS
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Webb Ellis Test HeadguardL, XS
Contact Sports SpecialistsHeadguardYouth, S, M, L
Contact Sports SpecialistsTaiaha HeadgearS, M, L
Convert Co. Ltd.Headgear Art No. H1090M, L, XL
Decathlon S.A.Kipsta R300XS, XXS
Descente Ltd.Umbro HeadgearM, L
Firepower Sport LtdXVENTL, M, S, MB, LB
Flash S.A.BeRugbe Ultra Lite HeadgearS, M, L
Flash S.A.Ultra Lite Headgear (Item 1008)S, M, L
Force XVHeadguardYouth, S, M, L
Gilbert RugbyAtomic HeadgearSB, MB, LB, S, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyAttackXL, L, M, S
Gilbert RugbyBraincellLB, MB, SB, XL, L, M, S
Gilbert RugbyCompositeS, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyDimension HeadguardL
Gilbert RugbyEvolution XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyFalcon 200XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyTriflex HeadguardS, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyVengeance IIS, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyVengeance V3 HeadguardS, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyVirtuo HeadguardXL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyVX CellSB,MB,LB,S,M,L XL
Gilbert RugbyVX5 HeadguardXL, L, M, S, LB
Gilbert RugbyXact HeadguardSB, MB, LB, S, M, L, XL
GoldSeal Int. Ltd.Head ProtectorS, M, L, XL
Gray-Nicholls PTY Ltd.Steeden Union HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Haka New Zealand LtdBodyshock Rugby HeadgearJunior, Senior
Han’s SportsHans HeadgearS,M,L
Head PguardLegend 2XS, S, M, L, XL
I-Jay/PageantKukri, George SimpkinS, L
I-Jay/PageantKukri/George Simpkin/ Summit/Proact/Gee HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Impact RugbyV2L, M, S, XS
Impact RugbyWarriorXS, S, M, L
JJB SportsCotton Traders Bionic HeadguardLB, S, M, L
KipstaH500XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
KipstaH700XL, L, M, S
KipstaR300M, S, XS, XXS
KipstaR300 2010XL, L, S, XS, XXS
KipstaR500 XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
KipstaR700XL, L, M, S
KooGaCombatXl, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
KooGaDunedinB, S, M, L
KooGaDunedin Airtech XL, L, M, S
KooGaDunedin Airtech (different colourway)M
KooGaDunedin Airtech LoopXL, L, M, S
KooGaDunedin Junior Loop HeadguardLB, MB, SB
KooGa Dunedin.comMDB
KooGaElite HeadguardL, M, S, XS
KooGaEssentialsXl, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
KooGaEvaporexLB, S, M, L
KooGaKV2 HeadgearS, M, L
KooGaNebular HeadgearS, M, L, XL
KooGaRam HeadgearXS, S, M, L
KooGaShadow 76 HeadgearS,M,L
KooGaShadow II HeadguardL, M, S, XS
KooGaShadow III TBT HeadguardL, M, S, XS
KooGaVictor HeadgearS, M, L and L Boys
Laboratoire Sober S.A.RG-CPI HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Le Coq SportifHeadgearM, L, XL
Lindbergh Trading Co. LtdLindbergh HeadgearX, L, M
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 04 HeadgearS, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 05 HeadgearS, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 07 HeadgearXL, L, M, S, XS, 2XS, 3XS
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 2010 Rugby HeadguardS, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 2011 Rugby HeadguardXXL, XL, L, M, S
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas HeadgearS, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas S1407HG001XL, L, M, S, XS
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno 2008 Rugby HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno 2014XXL, XL, L, M, S
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno Headgear 2010S, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno Rugby HeadgearXXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno Rugby Headgear 2011XXL, XL, L, M, S
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPatrick Rugby Head ProtectorS, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPowerCat HelmetXL, L, M, S, XS,
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPuma 2007XS, S, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPuma Rugby HelmetS, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPuma V – KonstruktXXS. L
Longway Enterprise Co LtdRugby HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdRugby HelmetXS, S, M, L
Longway Enterprise Co LtdUnder Armour ERG3439L, M
Macron S.p.A.Macron HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Madison Sports Pty LtdAir Flo HeadgearXS, S, M, L
Madison Sports Pty LtdCoolmaxYouth, S, M, L
Madison Sports Pty LtdElite Rugby Head GuardS, M, L
Madison Sports Pty LtdSuper HeadguardS, M, L
Mitre SportsCool Max ProS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsHead GearS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsSiegeS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsZoneS, M, L, XL
Mould A Foam ccHeadgear RatelXS, S, M, L
Mr Price Group LtdLeague HeadgearS, M, L
Mr Price Group LtdPro HeadgearS, M, L
Nice Co LtdMizuno R3JTA600O, L, M, S, XO
OPRO InternationalOproXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
OptimumAtomikL, M, S, LB, SB
OptimumExtreme HeadgearS, M, L, LBoys
OptimumFusionS, LB, SB
OptimumHed Web ProXXS, XS
OptimumHedweb Classic TribalXL
OptimumHedweb Junior (Boys)S, L
OptimumHedweb-ClassicS, M, L, LBoys
OptimumHedweb-ProXS, S, M, L
OptimumInfernoL, M, S, LB/XS, SB/XXS
OptimumKipsta R300 HeadgearXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL (BSI) 05
OptimumKipsta R300 HeadgearXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumKipsta R500 CasqueLboys, S, M, L
OptimumMatrixS, M, L and L Boys
OptimumPro-Touch HeadgearXS, S, M, L
OptimumPulseXXS, XS, S, M, L,
Orbit Sports Manufacturers ccStormForce HeadguardS, M, L, XL
Orifu Co. Ltd., Rugby GoodsOrifu HeadgearM, L
Paladin Sports Technology Pty LtdGreat HelmXL, L, M, S, XS
PlaymakerGamebreaker HeadgearM, L, XL
Playsafe Sports Pty. LtdFrontliner HeadgearJunior-S, Junior-M
Primo Play LtdThe LegionXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Pro-TecHead ProtectorXS, S, M, L
ProLineHead GearXS, S, M, L
PromilesProfiler HeadgearM, L, XL
Protective Sports ApparelChill HeadgearS, M, L
Protective Sports ApparelShocktop HeadgearS, M, L
Reliance Sporting GoodsAchilles Pro Lite HeadgearS, M, L
Reliance Sporting GoodsReliance Pro Elite HeadgearS, M, L, XL
Rhino Rugby LtdRhino HeadgearXS, S, M, L, XL
Rhino Rugby LtdRhino Skin HeadguardS, M, L, XL
RichterPredator PRH1S, M, L
RugbytechStyle 1XS, S, M, L, X
RugbytechStyle 2 – Mizuno and NovelasticS, M, L
RugbytechStyle 3 – AdidasS, M, L, XL
Samurai SportswearContour Elite HeadguardXS, S, M, L, XL
Saturnino Cabezon SAICIyFProcer #335 HeadgearS, M, L, XL
SceptreHeadgearM, L
SceptreHeadgear SP – 277S, M, L, XL
ScuttiHeadguardXS, S, M, L
Shock Doctor IncShockskin Adjustable Rugby Headgear 497XL, L, M, S and Youth
Shock Doctor IncShockskin Adjustable Rugby Headgear 498XL, L, M, S and Youth
Silver Fern New ZealandHead ProtectorS, M, L, XL
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdBoes Inc. Black TigerXL, L, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdBurrda Tech HeadguardXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdCooperXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS, XXXS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdCor SportX,L, L, M
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdForce XVXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdHart ‘Attack’ Head GearL, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdHippo RugbyL, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdImpactL, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdKappaXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdKukriXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdMacronXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdMitreXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS, XXXS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdPatrickXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS, XXXS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdProactXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdProtouch XL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdR80L, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdRhino XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdRugbyGirlL, M and S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdShield (Zebra) HeadguardXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdStash SportswearM, S, XS, XXS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdStruddys Pro HeadguardXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdVetoL, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdVX-3 Aero HeadguardXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdX-BladesXL, L, M, S, ,XS, XXS
Sportopia SAWasp ProS, M, L
Sports Factory Consulting LtdBionixL, M, S, LB
Sports Factory Consulting LtdCotton Traders Bionic HeadguardL, M, S and LB
Sports Resources Ltd.Headgear HG1800S, M, L, XL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Armaflex 3D HeadgearL Boys, S, M, L, XL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.McDavid Hex HelmetXL, L, M, S, LB, MB
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Samurai Supalite HeadgearL Boys, S, M, L, XL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Webb Ellis Airflex Cell HeadgearL Boys, S, M, L, XL
Suzuki Sports Company Ltd.Head GearS, M, L, XL, XXL
TaggHead ProtectorXS, S, M, L
Under ArmourArmour XVXL, L, M
Walsh Sports Shoe ManufacturersHeadguardS, M, L
Wearable HeritageKoruS, M, L
Wearwulf Sportsgear PTY LtdHead GuardXS, S, M, L, XL
Wearwulf Sportsgear PTY LtdSnakeskin HeadgearS, M, L
Webb Ellis LimitedSE2M
Wellpower Sports Co Ltd  Headgear HG2214   XS, S, M, L
WRS Group Pty Ltd.BLK ExotekXL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Xtreme Sports GearXtreme HeadgearM, L
BrandStyleSizes
Atout PiqueAbsolut 7S, M, L, XL, XXL
Atout PiqueTribalS, M, L, XL, XXL
Atout PiqueTukiM, L, XL, XXL
Barbarian Rugby Wear Inc.Protective Shoulder VestS, M, L, XL, XXL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedClub VestXL, L, M, S, XS
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedDominant VestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop 2 XXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop 2 PlusXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop Elite Long SleeveS, M, L, XL, XXL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop Elite Short SleeveS, M, L, XL, XXL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop PlusXXL, XL, L, M, S
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexitop Pro VestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedFlexlite VestXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedNewTech VestXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedShocktop VestXXL, XL, L, M, S,
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedStrike VestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedTech ImpactXXL ,XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedTech PlusXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, LB, MB
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedZ Vest/ Defender VestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
BOES IncorporatedRugby Shoulder PadsL, M S
CanterburyTech Shoulder Vest8-10, 12-14, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Chest Protection Vest (Crew Neck)S, M, L, XL, XXL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Club Vest - Style: 1038XS, S, M, L, XL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Honeycomb Tech Shoulder Vest (Crew Neck)S, M, L, XL, XXL
Canterbury (by Body Armour)Honeycomb Tech Shoulder Vest (V-Neck)S, M, L, XL
Colaro SportsCore-X (Impact Rugby)XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, LB, MB, SB, XSB
Colaro SportsSplash Women/Ladies Shoulder PadsXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Colaro SportsSwag Men Shoulder PadsXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Comax Shoulder Padding (CP8314)XS, S, M, L, XL
Comax Sporting Goods Co. Ltd.Puma Shoulder PaddingL, XL, XXL
Contact Sports SpecialistsShoulder PadsS, M, L
Contact Sports SpecialistsTaiaha Shoulder VestL, M
Convert Co. Ltd.Shoulder Padding Art No F1858XL, Free Size
Flash S.A.BeRugbe Shoulder ProtectorXS, S, M, L, XL
Flash S.A.BeRugbe Shoulder/Biceps/Chest ProtectorXS, S, M, L, XL
Flash S.A.Shoulder Protector (Item 705)XS, S, M, L, XL
Flash S.A.Shoulder/Biceps/Chest Protector (Item 706)XS, S, M, L, XL
Force XVT.RexS, M, L, XL
Force XVTriceratopS, M, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyAC and Shoulder PaddingXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyAtomic ZenonXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyAtomic Zenon V2XXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB,SB
Gilbert RugbyAtomic Zenon Womens WRXXXL, XL, L, M, S
Gilbert RugbyBlitz/Atomic V2XXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyCharger XactXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
Gilbert RugbyChieftainSB,MB,LB,S,M,L,XL,XXL
Gilbert RugbyChieftain V2XXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyMercuryXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB , SB
Gilbert RugbyQuestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, S
Gilbert RugbySynergie 12SB,MB,LB,S,M,L,XL,XXL
Gilbert RugbyTanktopXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyTri-FlexS, M, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyTri-Flex Super-LiteM, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyTri-Lite Tank TopS Boys, M Boys, XS, S, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyTriflex Charger (II) Shoulder GarmentXS, S, M. L, XL
Gilbert RugbyTriflex Charger Shoulder GarmentsXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Gilbert RugbyTriflex ProXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
Gilbert RugbyTriliteXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyTrilite XtraXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyVirtuo 12XXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Gilbert RugbyVX5 HeadguardXL, L, S, LB
Gilbert RugbyXact10SB,MB,LB,S,M,L XL,XXL
GoldSeal Int. Ltd.VestXS, S, M, L, XL
Gray-Nicholls PTY Ltd.Steeden Shoulder PaddingYouth, XS, S, M, L, XL
Guangzhou Tien Sporting GoodsTF PW Pad Top PXXL, XL, L, M, S
Han’s SportsHans Shoulder PaddingM,L-XL, XXL-EL
I-Jay/PageantMens Shoulder Pads George Simpkin, Kukri, Proact, GeeS, M, L, XL, XXL
IndtexCarisbrook, MizunoM, L, XL/O
Jenfaith Development LtdV Konstruct Protection Shirt 650939L
Jenfaith Development LtdV Konstruct Protection Shirt 650940L, 152
JJB SportsCotton Traders Bionic Body ArmourLB, S, M, L, XL
JJB SportsCotton Traders Bionic Body Armour L/SLB, S, M, L, XL
JJB SportsCotton Traders Bionic Impact Body ArmourLB, S, M, L, XL
KipstaH100 Jr14yr, 12 yr, 10yr, 8yr, 6yr
KipstaH100 SrXXL, XL, L, M, S
KipstaH500 Jr14yr, 12 yr, 10yr, 8yr, 6yr
KipstaH500 SrXXL, XL, L, M, S
KipstaKipsta R300XXS, XS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
KipstaKipsta R500XS, XXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
KipstaKipsta R700XXL, XL, L, M, S
KipstaR300XXL, XL, L, M, S
KipstaR300XXL, XL, L, M, S
KipstaR500XS, XXS
KipstaR500 JuniorXS, XXS
KipstaR500 SeniorXXL, XL, L, M, S
KipstaR700XXL, XL, L, M, S
KipstaShoulder Pad LightXXL, XL, L, M, S
KooGaA/C Glove PadS, M, L, XL, XXL
KooGaCenturianM, L, XL
KooGaCenturian IIM, L, XL
KooGaDominatorXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
KooGaEnforcerXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
KooGaEVX IIIXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
KooGaEVX VXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
KooGaEVX VIIIXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
KooGaImpact VestM, L, XL
KooGaimpact Vest IIXXL, XL, L, M
KooGaIPS BarricadeXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
KooGaIPS IIIXXL, XL, L, M, S
KooGaIPS JuniorLB, MB, SB
KooGaIPS VXXL, XL, L, M, S
KooGaIPS VIIXXL, XL, L, M, S
KooGaIPS XIIXXL, XL, L, M, S
KooGaPro ExtraS, M, L, XL, XXl
KooGaPro PadXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
KooGaPro PlusS, M, L, XL, XXL
KooGaSamuraiS, M, L, XL, XXL
KooGaSamurai IIS, M, L, XL, XXL
KooGaWarriorL boys, S, M, L, XL
KooGaWarrior IIIL, M, S, Youth
KooGaWarrior IIIXXL, XL, L, M, S, Y, LB, MB
KooGaZulu IIXL, L, M, S, LB
KooGaZulu Shoulder PaddingL boys, S, M, L, XL
Kukri SportsShoulder PaddingS, M, L, XL
Le Coq SportifShoulder PaddingM, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdAdidas 05 Shoulder PaddingS, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno Shoulder GuardXS, S, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdMizuno Shoulder PaddingS, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdPuma Big CatM, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdRB Protect TopXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdRugby ShirtS, M, L, XL
Longway Enterprise Co LtdRugby VestXS, S, M, L, XL
Macron S.p.A.Macron Italy Rugby ShirtM, L, XL
Madison Sports Pty LtdMagicJ/S, M, L, XL, XXL
Madison Sports Pty LtdScorpion Protective VestSB, MB, LB, S, M, L, XL
Madison Sports Pty LtdSecond PhaseS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsAcademyS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsDestroyerXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Mitre SportsDestroyer IIXS, S, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsRaidS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsSkirmishS, M, L, XL
Mitre SportsVenti Max ProS, M, L, XL
Mr Price Group LtdLeague Shoulder PadsXS, S, M, L, XL
Mr Price Group LtdPro Shoulder PadsXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
OPRO InternationalOproXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
OptimumAtomikXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB, Mini
OptimumBlitzXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, SB, Mini
OptimumExtremeS Boys, L Boys, XXXS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumExtreme 10 Shoulder PaddingSB, LB, S, M, L, XL
OptimumExtreme Thinskin GripperXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
OptimumFaz PadsS, L Boys,S, M, L, XL, XXL Adult
OptimumFusionLB, MB, SB
OptimumInfernoXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB, Mini
OptimumKipsta R300XXS, XS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumKipsta R500 9 ProtectionsJNR, M, L, XL
OptimumMatrixS Boys, L Boys, S, M L, XL
OptimumOptimum Five Pad Tribal LongSB,LB,S,M,L,XL,XXL
OptimumOriginXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB , SB
OptimumPro Touch Shoulder PaddingXXS, XS, M, L, XL
OptimumPro-Touch Shoulder PaddingXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumPulseXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumShok TopS, L (boys), S, M, L, XL, XXL (Adult)
OptimumShok Top ProS, M, L
OptimumThinskin Shok TopXXS, XS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
OptimumTribal Tri TopXXL
OptimumTribal Tri TopXS, S, M, L, XL
OptimumVelocityXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Orbit Sports Manufacturers ccHeadstartXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS, XXXS
Paladin Sports Technology Pty LtdPauldronL,M, S, XS, LB, MB, SB, XSB
Primo Play LtdThe LegionXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Pro-TecPro-VestS, M, L, XL
Pro-TecStandard VestXS, S, M, L, XL
ProguardProguard Shoulder PadsJunior - Mini, Mod, M, L,Adult - XS, S, M, L
ProLineShoulder GloveS/M, L/XL
Protective Sports ApparelShock TopXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Rhino Rugby LtdRhino Skin Shoulder PadsS, M, L, XL, XXL
RichterPredator! Padded Match VestXS, S, M, L, XL
RichterPredator! Short Sleeve VestS, M, L
RugbytechAdult Short Vest, Rugbyech Cool Mesh, Novelastic ProS, M, L, XL, XXL
RugbytechJuniorS, M, L, XL
RugbytechMatador Shoulder GarmentS, M, L, XL, XXL
RugbytechRugbytech Chessi Vest, Adidas Short Vest, Novelastic Short Vest,Mizuno Short VestS, M, L, XL, XXL
Samurai SportswearAdult Contour Elite Shoulder PadXL, L, M, S
Samurai SportswearContour Elite Shoulder PadS, M, L, XL
Samurai SportswearContour Elite Shoulder PadXS, LB
Samurai SportswearKids Contour Elite Shoulder PadLB, XS
SceptreShoulder Padding SP-3102M, L, O
SceptreSP- 3103XL, L, M and S
ScuttiCombat VestXS, S, M, L, XL
ScuttiCommando VestS, M, L, XL
Second Skins (Pty) LtdHeadstart2XS, XS, S, M, L, XL, 2XL
Shock Doctor IncShockskin 2 Pad Rugby Shoulder Pad 490XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, Youth L, M
Shock Doctor IncShockskin 2 Pad Rugby Shoulder Pad 491XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, Youth L, M
Silver Fern New ZealandSilver Fern VestXS, S, M, L, XL
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdBurrda Tech Shoulder VestXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdCanterburyXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdCCC ImpactXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS, XXS, XXXS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdCCC Vapodri Raze Flex VestXXL, XL, L, M, S LB, MB, SB
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdCCC Vapodri Raze Pro VestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdCCC ‘Z’ VestXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdCor SportXL, L, M
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdHart ‘Attack’ Body ShieldL, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdHippo RugbyM, LB, MB
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdKappaXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdMacronXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdMitreXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS, XXXS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdPatrickXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS, XXXS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdProactXXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdProtouchXXXL, XXL, XL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdR80L, M, S
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdRhinoL, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdStruddys Pro Shoulder PadXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdVX-3 Pro Body ArmourXL, L, M, S, XS
Sporting Syndicate Pvt LtdX BladesXL, L, M, S, XS, XXS
Sportopia SAStrikeforceXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Sportopia SATerminatorXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Sports Factory Consulting LtdBionix Impact (Short Sleeve)XL, L, M, S and LB
Sports Factory Consulting LtdCotton Traders Bionic Body Armour (Long Sleeve)XL, L, M, S, and LB
Sports Factory Consulting LtdCotton Traders Bionic Impact Body Armour (Short Sleeve)XL, L, M, S, and LB
Sports ResourcesSG200XL, L, M, S
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Armaflex SP3 Shoulder PaddingS Boys, M Boys, L Boys, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Armaflex SP1 Shoulder PaddingL Boys, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Armaflex SP2 Shoulder PaddingXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.LITE Shoulder PaddingXL, L, M, S, LB, SB
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.MAX Shoulder PaddingXXL, XL, L, M, S
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.PRO Shoulder PaddingXXL, XL, L, M, S, LB
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Samurai SPX1 Shoulder PaddingL Boys, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Samurai SPX2 Shoulder PaddingXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Samurai SPX3 Shoulder PaddingS Boys, M Boys, L Boys, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Webb Ellis Airflex Pro Shoulder PaddingXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Stirling Moulded Composites Ltd.Webb Ellis Airflex Shoulder PaddingS Boys, M Boys, L Boys, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Terminator Clothing LtdTerminator TopsMini, Youth, Large, XL, XXL
TSG International Ltd700747 Protection ShirtL
TSG International Ltd700747 Shoulder Padding and GarmentL
TSG International Ltd700748 Protection ShirtM
TSG International Ltdv-Konstrukt ShirtL
Uma InternationalAramisSmall. Large
Under ArmourMens Scar Club MPZ TopXXXXL, XXXL, XXL, XL, L, M, S
Under ArmourMens Scar Pro MPZ TopXXXXL, XXXL, XXL, XL, L, M, S
Vulkan (Medipost)Padded VestsXS(Youth), S, M, L, XL
Walsh Sports Shoe ManufacturersUni-PadXS, S, M, L, XL, XXL
Webb Ellis LimitedImpax ProS, L, XL
Webb Ellis LimitedResilioXS, S, M, L, XL
Webb Ellis LimitedSpectralL, M, S, LB, MB
Wellpower Sports Co Ltd  CP2219 (without sleeve)XS, S, M, L, XL
Wellpower Sports Co Ltd  CP2221 (with Sleeve)XS, S, M, L, XL
WRS Group Pty Ltd.BLK BKT326 Tek VIXL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
WRS Group Pty Ltd.BLK BKTE327 Exotek ProXL, L, M, S, LB, MB, SB
Xtreme Sports GearXtreme Shoulder PadM, L
BrandStyleSizes
Body Armour (NZ) LimitedCanterburys Womens Vest Z012025S, M, L, XL, XXL
FionnFionn Body Protector8/10, 10/12, 12/14, 14/16, 16/18
Gilbert RugbyImpact Protector BraS, M, L, XL
Gilbert RugbyTriflex WomensL, XL
GoldSeal Int. Ltd.Ladies VestXS, S, M, L
I-Jay/PageantGeorge Simpkin, Kukri, Proact, GeeS, M, L, XL
Kukri SportsWomens Shoulder PadsS, M, L, XL
Lolly PerformanceThe Attack HerXXXS, XXS, XS, S, M, L, XL, XXL, XXXL
RugbytechLadies Long VestS, M, L, XL
Silver Fern New ZealandSilver Fern Ladies VestXS, S, M, L
Terminator Clothing LtdEnforcerS12/14, M16/18, L18+

This document provides outline guidance for the appropriate development of a site suitable for Rugby played on natural turf.

Lack of appropriate planning in the early stages of a development can be costly in the short term and adversely affect the sustainability of a facility over the medium and long term. A poorly considered proposal that results in the development of a mediocre facility will discourage users and often result in increased maintenance costs. It is therefore important that any proposed facility is planned in a logical and conscientious manner.

The information contained within this document does not attempt to give detailed guidance on a site specific basis for the design, construction and maintenance of all facilities and it is strongly recommended that further advice be sought from qualified, experienced, independent professionals who can offer detailed recommendations based on site specific information.

A technical site feasibility study should be completed by a competent consultant in all but the smallest of development projects.

Great care should be exercised when designing any type of pitch. The conditions found on-site and the anticipated levels of use must form the basis for the proposals, but modified by the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction process, the timetable proposed and funding. A one-size-fits-all approach is never cost effective.

The development of a site is usually carried out by contractors, preferably a specialist in pitch construction. A pitch sub-contractor may be hired to undertake the pitch element of any development if it is part of a larger contract.

There are usually two main approaches to pitch procurement and these can be found below.

In many countries, Rugby is played in winter when grass growth is minimal and weather conditions less than ideal. Poor quality surfaces mean that players are unable to experience a satisfactory standard of play which can influence the outcome of a match, a situation that is unacceptable at the highest levels of the Game. Furthermore pitch maintenance can be a challenge when drainage compromises pitch performance.

However, upgrading a poor quality pitch or constructing a new one does not necessarily solve the drainage and usage problems. Proper drainage design is an essential item of quality pitch design, along with the projected intensity of use. Drainage design must take account of local rainfall statistics and defines what eventualities are being catered for so that these may be incorporated in to the final pitch design process.

Poor construction, ineffective maintenance and overuse will eventually lead to deterioration in pitch performance, poor drainage and unacceptable playing conditions.

Unless the existing ground contours are acceptable, some form of grading may be necessary. The extent of the grading works will be confirmed by the detailed topographical survey. In certain circumstances, this may require the removal of the topsoil with adjustment made in the underlying subsoil.

Rock, running sand and peat will all require specialist treatment but these hazards should have been identified during the feasibility stage. Soils should only be moved when ground and weather conditions are sufficiently dry.

Normally final gradients will depend upon local site conditions but a general rule is to achieve a maximum gradient of 1:80 – 1:100 along the length of the pitch and 1:40 – 1:50 across the field of play. Occasionally pitches may be crowned with a central higher spine running between the goals and a fall to either wing.

Pitch design can take many different forms dependent upon site conditions and the client’s requirements for performance. The more common forms of pitch design are discussed in the following section.

It is recommended that all materials are approved for their specific use before any construction work commences.

A successful development or upgrading project will only occur if the project is planned and executed effectively. As part of the procurement and pitch development process there are four key stages. These are design, tendering, contractor appointment and site development. All stages are equally important in the successful delivery of the project.

The overall responsibility for the delivery of the project from concept to completion often falls to a volunteer member or an appointed project manager.

The project manager takes on the responsibility for the delivery and execution of the project and the processes associated with it. These processes can be categorised as follows:

Any natural turf pitch requires maintenance to produce a surface of acceptable quality for the game played upon it. Rugby requires a profile that is adequately drained to allow play in all, but the most extreme, conditions.

The components of a management package for Rugby revolve around the basics of mowing and aeration. Sward growth characteristics will also be dependent upon these elements but also turfgrass nutrition and irrigation management especially, in the drier summer months when sward recovery is required. There are other aspects of maintenance for which the groundsman is responsible, including weed and pest control, overseeding, divoting, returfing and top dressing.

The playing quality of a sports surface is of fundamental importance to player safety as well as influencing the player’s enjoyment of the game. The quality of the surface can be described according to the interaction of the player with the surface and the interaction of the ball with the surface. In Rugby, the former is more important in relation to running, scrummaging, tackling and diving on the surface.

In addition to assessing playing quality, agronomic factors should also be considered such as the grass cover, moisture content and organic matter as these can have a strong bearing on playing quality.

The breeding of grasses has developed significantly in recent years and the industry now has a wide range of grasses available for selection. Grasses are generally made up of families of species with sub species and cultivars. Some species of grass have been significantly modified in order to give particular cultivars certain characteristics. Grass selection at construction and, indeed choosing which grass species you wish to introduce and encourage, will significantly impact upon the type, nature and quality of pitch produced.

In order to select the correct grasses several factors should be considered, including climate, local weather conditions and the length of the growing season. The following section gives guidance in the potential choices available, but it is recommended that the final selection is made in consultation with a qualified agronomist.

  • Baker, S. W., Gibbs, R. J., & Adams, W. A. (1992). Case studies of the performance of different designs of winter games pitches. I. Playing quality and usage. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 68, 20-32.
  • Sport England (2000). In Design Guidance Note, Natural Turf for Sport. Sport England publications, PO Box 255, Wetherby LS23 7LZ.
  • Thornton, D.J. (1978). The construction and drainage of some specified sports field playing surfaces. PhD Thesis, University College Wales, Aberstwyth.
  • McClements, I. & Baker, S.W. (1994) The playing quality of natural turf Rugby pitches. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 70, 29-43.

ANDORRA

Estadi Nacional Andorra
Produced by: Limonta

AUSTRALIA

Waverley Park
Produced by: Polytan
Blackman Oval
Produced by: Polytan
Robertson Rd Synthetic Field - Centennial Park
Produced by: Polytan
Hensley Athletic Field
Produced by: Polytan
Blackman Oval
Produced by: Polytan

BELGIUM

Frameries
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: Sports Labs
International School of Brussels
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.

CANADA

Westhills Stadium
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs USA
Westhills Stadium
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
UBC Thunderbirds Stadium
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
Ken Woods field
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
BC Place
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
Westhills Stadium
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France

ENGLAND

Queen Ethelbruga's Collegiate
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Queen Ethelbruga's Collegiate
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Rue Cohu
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: Sports Labs
Skegness Town FC
Produced by: Limonta
Tested by: Labosport UK
Reaseheath College
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: Labosport France
Worcester Warriors
Produced by: Limonta
Tested by: Labosport UK
Lewes FC
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Newcastle Falcons Rugby Club
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Burnage RFC
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Lytham Road Secondary School
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Sports Labs
Queen Ethelbruga's Collegiate
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Shaftesbury Park
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Audenshaw High School
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: Labosport UK
Queen Ethelbruga's Collegiate
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Allianz Park
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Cheadle Hulme School
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Tresham College of Further & Higher Education
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Labosport France
Loughborough University
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
Loughborough University 1st Team Rugby Pitch
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport France
University of Bristol
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Writhlington Sports Centre
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Aylesbury RFC
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport France
Epping Upper Clapton FC
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Durham University
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Hampton School
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Newquay Tretherras School
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
North Somerset Enterprise College
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Olympic Legacy Park
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Westhoughton High School
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Labosport France
Warden Park Academy
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Sports Labs
Salesian College
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Nottingham University
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Sports Labs
Lockleaze Sports Development
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Keele University (Keith Harrison Sports Park)
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Maidenhead RFC
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Rosslyn Park RFC
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Warwick University
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
University of Kent
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Tunbridge Wells Grammar School for Boys
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: Sports Labs
Kings House School
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: World Rugby TI
University of Nottingham
Produced by: Limonta
Tested by: Sports Labs
Myerscough College
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: Labosport UK
University of Central Lancashire
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Labosport UK
Nottingham Trent University
Produced by: Limonta
Tested by: Sports Labs
University of Derby
Produced by: Edel Grass
Lakes College West Cumbria
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Leigh Sports Village
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Keighley RFC
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Preston Grasshoppers RFC
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport France
CMK Sports Pavillion
Produced by: Limonta
Tested by: Labosport France
Leigh Sports Village
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
South Gloucester & Stroud College
Produced by: Act Global
Fleetwood Rugby Club
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Dyson Perrins Church of England Academy
Produced by: Limonta
Tested by: Labosport UK
Portsmouth University
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
University of Hull Sports & Fitness Centre
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Hodge Hill College
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport France
Sidcot School
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Billingham Rugby Club
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
The Graham Sports Centre
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Sports Labs
Stourbridge RFC
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Kendal RUFC
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Hartpury College
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: Labosport UK
Cranford College
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Manchester Enterprise Academy
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Sports Labs
The Graham Sports Centre
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Sports Labs
University of Leeds - Weetwood Sports Park
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Applemore College
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
St Joan of Arc Catholic High School
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs

FRANCE

Stade Vuillermet
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Complexe Sportif Municipal
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Complexe Sportif Intercommunal
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade Mayol
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Le Parc Municipal des Sports
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Terrain De Rugby - Treillieres
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Altrad Stadium Complex Yves du Manoir
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: Sports Labs
Pole Sportif du Grand Pic Saint Loup
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade Camille et Edmond Leclanché
Produced by: Limonta
Tested by: Labosport France
Complexe Sportif
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade Castellane
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Stade de l'Estagnol
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Stade Albaladejo
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
COMPLEXE ETIENNE VIDAL
Produced by: Limonta
Stade Holtzer
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade Municipal - Roquebrussanne
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade Toulaison Rugby - Ernest Wallon
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Parc des Sports
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade Mangin Beaulieu
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade Robert Barran
Produced by: Limonta
Tested by: Labosport France
Domaine des Vallons du Soleil
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Complexe Sportif de la Castanette
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Lycée Agricole Marie Durand
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: World Rugby TI
Complexe Sportif Nord, Arbent
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade des Orchamps
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stadium Lille Métropole
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade du Col Pelletier
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Complexe Sportif Jean Guimier
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Stade Recoux, Le Cannet des Maures
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Plaine des Sports
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade Charles Mathon
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Plessis-Robinson
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Plaine des Sports
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade Pascal LAPORTE - NANTES
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade Jean Dauger
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
Plaine des jeux de Gerland - Terrain N°3
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade du Moulin
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Arena 92
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade René leduc
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Tours Chambrerie
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Stade Robert Porro
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France

HONG KONG

Shek Kip Mei Park
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
LCSD Happy Valley Pitch 8
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
King's Park Sports Ground
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
TIN SHUI WAI COMMUNITY RECREATION GROUND
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
The University of Hong Kong
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
King's Park Sports Ground
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
King George V School
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
Hong Kong Football Club
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
The Education University of Hong Kong Sports Centre
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
Kowloon Tsai Sports Ground
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
King's Park Sports Ground
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France

INDONESIA

Jakarta International School
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport UK

IRELAND

St Michael's College
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Sports Labs
Riada Playing fields
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Alfie Byrne Road
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Dungiven Sports Centre
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Crumlin Recreation Centre
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Bective Ranger RFC
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Bective Ranger RFC
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
Dublin City University
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Clones East Erne Sports Partnership
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport UK
University of Limerick
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Aquinas Diocesan Grammar School
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
National Sports Campus
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs

MALAYSIA

Bandar Penawar Field
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.

MOROCCO

Terrain Nkhila
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs

NETHERLANDS

Sportpark de Eendracht (NRB complex)
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Kiwa ISA Sport
RC The Bassets
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Kiwa ISA Sport
RC Waterland
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Kiwa ISA Sport

NEW ZEALAND

Hutt Recreation Ground
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport France
Boyd Wilson Field
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
St Pats College, Wellington
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport France
St. Peter's College Auckland
Produced by: Greenfields
College Rifles
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
College Rifles
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Fraser Park
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Labosport France
Maidstone Park
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
North Harbour Stadium No. 4
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport UK
Te Whaea Football Ground
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Labosport UK
Memorial Park Field, Masterton
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
Bernie Wood Synthetic Sports Field
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport UK
Alex Moore Park
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport UK
Auckland Grammar School
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Sports Labs
Macleans College
Produced by: Polytan
Wellington College
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport UK
Wakefield Park
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport UK
Wakefield Park
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport UK

PHILIPPINES

International School of Manila
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport UK

POLAND

National Stadium
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
OSIR Bemowo Boisko A
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Majkowskie Centrum Rekreacyjno-Sportowe w Kaliszu
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.

SCOTLAND

Meggetland
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: Sports Labs
University of St. Andrew's Sport Centre
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Highland Rugby Football Club
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Linlithgow Sports Centre
Produced by: Act Global
Fauldhouse
Produced by: Act Global
Glasgow Green Football Centre
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Scotstoun Sports Campus
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Labosport UK
Forester's Park
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Haddington Athletic Community Football Club
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Pinkie Saint Peters PS
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Prestonpans - Middleshot Square
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Heriot-Watt University
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
North Berwick Rugby Club
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Cupar Sports Centre
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Labosport UK
Hallhill Sports Centre
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Volunteer Park 3G
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Myrus Centre
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Waid Academy
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Lochinch
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Clickimin Leisure Complex
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Bent Road Recreation Park
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
West of Scotland Football Club
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Dundee International Sports Centre 3G
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Sports Labs
Scotstoun Sports Campus
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Balwearie High School
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Beeslack High School
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Pfeffermill Playing Fields
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Newton Stewart Football Club
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Labosport UK
Argyll Park
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Labosport UK
Whiteshawgate 3G Sports Trust (W3GST)
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
National Centre Inverclyde
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Stirling Sports Village
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Glasgow High School
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: Sports Labs
Dalziel Park
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Michael Woods Sports Centre
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Dalziel Park
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
St Kentigerns Academy
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Newton Farm Community Wing
Produced by: SIS
Tested by: Sports Labs
Murrayfield Stadium
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Langholm Primary School
Produced by: Edel Grass
Tested by: Sports Labs
Dumfries High School
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Garnock Campus
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Broadwood Stadium
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Dyce Academy Playing Fields
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Ochilview Park
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Rugby Park, Kilmarnock
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Marr College
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs
Heriot-Watt University
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Labosport UK
Renfrew Leisure centre
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs
Craigie High School
Produced by: Greenfields

USA

Century Link Field
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Life University
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Pine Banks
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
Fortress Obetz
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport France
Mercedes Benz Stadium
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs USA
Harvard University Rugby
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Sports Labs
The Woodlands
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Sports Labs

WALES

Y Gwyndy Ysgol Gyfun Cwm Rhymni - St Ilans
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport UK
Merthyr RFC
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Labosport UK
Caedrawnanat Recreation Ground
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport France
Ysgol Bae Baglan School
Produced by: Polytan
Tested by: Sports Labs
Cardiff Arms Park
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Parc Derwen
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Pontypridd RFC
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Caerphilly County Borough Centre for Sporting
Produced by: Act Global
Tested by: Labosport UK
Cardiff International Sports Stadium
Produced by: Fieldturf Inc.
Tested by: Labosport UK
Coleg Sir Gar
Produced by: Greenfields
Tested by: Sports Labs

1.

Introduction

1.

Introduction

British Standards Institution

A player may not receive local anaesthetics on Match Day unless it is for the suturing of bleeding wounds or for dental treatment administered by an appropriately qualified medical or dental practitioner.

Guideline summary

Guideline summary

The information in this Cardiac Screening Guideline is presented as guidance for Unions, Medical Practitioners and Rugby athletes. The Cardiac Screening recommendations will not be mandated for Unions to provide unless outlined specifically in a Terms of Participation document that requires signing by players to participate in a World Rugby controlled and managed Tournament or Competition.

1.

Introduction

Introduction

1.

Introduction

Relative Age Effect creates an advantage to those born earlier

1.

Introduction

Overview of paper

Concussion management

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Abstract

Overview of paper

Executive Summary

Introduction

Introduction

Introduction

Overview of paper

HIA Procedure

HIA process (continued)

HIA process (continued)

HIA process (continued)

HIA process (continued)

HIA process (continued)

HIA process (continued)

HIA process (continued)

HIA process (continued)

HIA process (continued)

HIA process (continued)

HIA process (continued)

The application process for research funding from World Rugby has three stages:

1.

Introduction

2006 Women’s World Cup, Edmonton, Alberta

1.

Introduction

The following general principles should be taken into account when considering applying to World Rugby for research funding in the areas of player welfare and safety:

Research should:

Summary Principles

Tracking the trends of the modern game

World Rugby tightens artificial turf regulations

Technology in the area of artificial playing surfaces has improved greatly over time and these advances have resulted in artificial turf being widely used for many sports, including rugby. World Rugby Regulation 22 through the Rugby Turf Performance Specification sets a minimum standard for artificial turf for use in rugby union.

The first Fortius International Sports Injury Conference is taking place on October 13th-14th, at the Queen Elizabeth II Conference Centre, in central London.

Regulation

Misconceptions

Testing

Installation

Maintenance

Facilities and One Turf

1.

Introduction

1. Introduction

Introduction

1. Introduction

What is it?

World Rugby and its member unions takes player safety extremely seriously and it is at the heart of all the training we deliver to coaches, referees and medics, at all levels of the game.

INTRODUCTION

It is time to give concussion an
operational definition: a 3-step process
to diagnose (or rule out) concussion
within 48 h of injury: World Rugby
guideline

Abstract

Section 1 presentations

This World Rugby Concussion Guidance document has been developed to provide guidance and information to persons involved in the Game of Rugby (including the general public) regarding concussion and suspected concussion.

The Rugby Football Union and Premiership Rugby Ltd has conducted an annual injury audit of England and Premiership teams since 2002. An injury is included in the audit if it prevents a player from training and/or playing for more than 24 hrs (see Methods section for a full definition).

Rugby is a dynamic game with a range of unique characteristics – and because of its nature, it has the attraction of being a game that is constantly evolving and changing. Some of these changes are seen as beneficial and some not so; the role of the World Rugby Game Analysis Department is to assess the impact on the shape and attraction of the modern game.

More information on TUEs

Key findings

The IRB is committed to implementing surveillance studies at all major IRB Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community. The aims of these studies are:

Session 2 - Game Load

World Rugby does not discriminate and does not have any policy which prevents HIV positive Players from playing the Game.

  • The Medicine, Science and Research Group (MSRG)
  • World Rugby Scientific Committee (SciCom)
  • World Rugby Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC)
  • The World Rugby Research Unit (WRRU)

To: Secretaries / Chief Executive Officers of Unions and Regional Associations in Membership of World Rugby

In December 2013, the IRB appointed the following concussion experts to assist with the management and prevention of concussion in Rugby:

Following the 2010 IRB Medical Conference, Dr Colin Fuller (IRB Safety Consultant) identified that regulating, directing or having exacting policies in the sports medical area that were applicable in all Member Unions was not practical or appropriate. Member Unions were noted to work within different levels of legal, economic, social and medical expertise that impacted on each Union's ability to deliver a single uniform medical policy.

Following the recommendation by Dr Fuller, the IRB approved a move from mandating Medical Regulations and Policies to providing Medical Guidelines. The Guidelines produced on medical matters would be based on best practice but their application within individual Member Unions would be based upon the unique social, economic and health provision environment(s) in which individual Unions existed.

This moved the emphasis away from mandating specific actions to identifying best practice that could be used by each Union to develop their own local 'good practice' model (see below).

1.

The World Rugby policy related to the Gender Identity Disorder and the ability of those whose sex has been reassigned, to play Rugby, is based upon the IOC Stockholm Declaration (see Appendix 1). Any person who has had their sex reassigned and wishes to play Rugby is covered by this policy and it is the duty of the player, and the Union having jurisdiction over the player, to follow the requirements contained within this policy.

Exercising in extreme environments is known to be associated with medical complications. The American College of Sports Medicine has developed guidelines for exercising in a hot environment. These guidelines were developed to provide advice during endurance events, in particular, distance foot races. The ACSM recommended using, an on-site Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) reading and recommended that consideration should be given to cancelling events when the WBGT was above 28.

Rugby is a team sport played by athletes of varying stature where the game is of an intermittent nature and limited to two 40 minute halves. The intermittent nature of the sport probably allows for greater access to fluid intake during competition when compared with endurance events.

Considering the significant differences between endurance foot racing and Rugby, a review of other sports Heat Guidelines, more closely aligned to Rugby was undertaken. This investigation revealed that the National Rugby League (NRL) in Australia had developed Heat Guidelines during 2000 following research undertaken by Dr John Brotherhood.

The outcome of this research revealed that “relying on the WBGT was limited as it only took into account ambient temperature, globe temperature (radiant heat) and humidity and 70% of this reading was dependent on humidity”. In addition it was identified that “the WBGT was not recorded by weather bureaus and a figure had to be estimated from the Wet Bulb Temperature”.

Dr. Brotherhood placed more weight on the Belding Hatch Stress Index (BHSI) than the WBGT. BHSI is calculated by dividing the Evaporative requirement of the player by the Maximum Evaporative capacity of the environment x 100. A figure of 100 represents an equilibrium between heat loss and heat gain.

In 2001 the NRL adopted guidelines based on the Heat Stress Index measured using a Whirling Hygrometer to assess environmental conditions. Since the introduction of these guidelines there has not been a reported incidence of heat illness during a competition game.

The recommended guidelines are based on utilizing the Heat Stress Index as measured by the Whirling Hygrometer at the site of the game.

Infectious diseases are spread directly or indirectly from an infected individual. Athletes interact closely with team-mates, opponents, and team staff. In addition they frequently share training and gym equipment, facilities-training rooms/grounds, accommodation, housing, towels, water bottles and supplies and commonly undertake both domestic and international travel.

Furthermore international travel exposes athletes to indigenous diseases for which they may have little or no natural immunity. Finally there is some information to suggest that athletes tend to be risk takers which may increase their risk for acquiring infections.

The categories of potential risk factors for spreading infection are:

The following medical facilities will be available at the match venue on match days:

rugby-related

The full scoring system and chart are available at the following web site:

Information taken from: Fuller et al. Injury risks associated with tackling in rugby union.

Foul play

The aim of this study was to assess whether differences in competing teams’ body mass and playing performance affected the risk of injury in rugby union. The study was a prospective, whole population survey of players representing all countries competing at the Rugby World Cup in 2007. The study design followed the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby with the main outcome measures being the incidence and severity of match injuries. Differences in players’ average body mass and mismatches in the teams’ overall and match performances did not create greater risks of injury for the lighter or less successful teams competing at Rugby World Cup 2007.

To read the text of this paper in full, visit:

Objective:

  • RECOGNISE AND REMOVE - learn to recognise the signs and symptoms of concussion and remove a player from the field if ANY doubt.
  • PROTECT OUR YOUNG ATHLETES - The IRB recommends different return to play protocols for different ages.
  • Concussion must be taken extremely seriously to safeguard the long term welfare of players.
  • All players with a diagnosed concussion must be removed from the field of play and not return to play or train on the same day. Players with a diagnosed concussion must go through a graduated return to play program (GRTP), described later in this document.
  • All players with a suspected concussion where no appropriately trained personnel are present must be assumed to have a diagnosed concussion and must be removed from the field of play and not return to play or train on the same day. In this situation, players must go through a graduated return to play (GRTP) protocol.
  • For elite competitions, where approved by the IRB’s Chief Medical Officer and Head of Technical Services, players with a head injury where the diagnosis is not immediately apparent must be removed from play and can be assessed by a certified medical professional (CMP - defined as "A Certified Medical Professional who has successfully completed the IRB on line education programme for Match Day Medical Staff") assisted by the Pitch Side Concussion Assessment (PSCA) Tool.
  • Players who complete a GRTP must receive medical clearance from a doctor or an approved healthcare professional (as defined by each Union) before returning to play
  • The IRB recognises that there is considerable diversity in health care support across and within each Member Union. Because of this diversity each Union is encouraged to identify the roles and responsibilities of medical and healthcare practitioners and to establish a definition of approved healthcare professional relevant to their respective jurisdictions. Each Union will be responsible for confirming who is approved to diagnose concussion, provide a clearance to start a GRTP, monitor a GRTP and provide a clearance to return to play.

Objectives:

Objectives:

Objective:

  • RECOGNISE AND REMOVE - learn to recognise the signs and symptoms of concussion and remove a player from the field if ANY doubt.
  • PROTECT OUR YOUNG ATHLETES - The IRB recommends different return to play protocols for different ages.
  • Concussion must be taken extremely seriously to safeguard the long term welfare of players.
  • All players with a diagnosed concussion must be removed from the field of play and not return to play or train on the same day. Players with a diagnosed concussion must go through a graduated return to play program (GRTP), described later in this document.
  • All players with a suspected concussion where no appropriately trained personnel are present must be assumed to have a diagnosed concussion and must be removed from the field of play and not return to play or train on the same day. In this situation, players must go through a graduated return to play (GRTP) protocol.
  • For elite competitions, where approved by the IRB’s Chief Medical Officer and Head of Technical Services, players with a head injury where the diagnosis is not immediately apparent must be removed from play and can be assessed by a certified medical professional (CMP - defined as "A Certified Medical Professional who has successfully completed the IRB on line education programme for Match Day Medical Staff") assisted by the Pitch Side Concussion Assessment (PSCA) Tool.
  • Players who complete a GRTP must receive medical clearance from a doctor or an approved healthcare professional (as defined by each Union) before returning to play
  • The IRB recognises that there is considerable diversity in health care support across and within each Member Union. Because of this diversity each Union is encouraged to identify the roles and responsibilities of medical and healthcare practitioners and to establish a definition of approved healthcare professional relevant to their respective jurisdictions. Each Union will be responsible for confirming who is approved to diagnose concussion, provide a clearance to start a GRTP, monitor a GRTP and provide a clearance to return to play.
Session 2 - Cervical Spine

The IRB is committed to implementing surveillance studies (SS) at all major IRB Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community. The aims of these studies are to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual Tournaments, to identify changing patterns of injury and to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of the IRB Chief Medical Officer.

The IRB Pacific Nations Cup (PNC) is an international Tournament for the six IRB Tier 2 countries located on the rim of the Pacific Ocean. As the level of exposure each year in the Tournament is relatively small, apart from the incidence of injury and anthropometric parameters, data from all Tournaments have been combined to provide a more meaningful analysis of the available data.

Objective:

Background:

The IRB is committed to implementing surveillance studies (SS) at all major IRB Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community. The aims of these studies are to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual Tournaments, to identify changing patterns of injury and to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of the IRB Chief Medical Officer.

There have been no previous reports related to the injury epidemiology for Women’s Rugby Sevens: this review therefore provides the first analysis of injuries sustained in international women’s Rugby Sevens.

1. Objective:

The annual injury audit by Premiership Rugby, the Rugby Players’ Association and the Rugby Football Union shows a 20% reduction in the likelihood of sustaining a match injury in season 2009-10 compared with the previous season

There was also a reduction in the severity of each injury from 23 days to 22 days and as a result a commensurate reduction in the total number of days absent due to injury of 26%.

The data is contained in the seventh England Rugby Premiership Training & Injury Audit 2009-10 presented and accepted by the Professional Game Board on January 20.

The injury audit has been conducted since the 2002-3 season and is the largest continuous study of injuries in world rugby.

An injury is defined in the study as ‘any injury that prevents a player from taking a full part in all training activities typically planned for that day and/or match play for more than 24 hours’.

Data was gathered from all registered Premiership Rugby players and covered training and playing in all the major competitions. Data was also gathered from the elite England team, but due to the relatively low number of matches played, the main body of the audit is based on data gathered from the Premiership Rugby clubs.

Background:

Objective:

Because the risk of injury in many sports is high, governing bodies and individuals involved with these sports have a responsibility to manage the risks at acceptable levels. Risk management provides a structured framework within which risks can be identified, evaluated, assessed, and controlled through appropriate mitigation strategies. Exploring inferences obtained from the relationship between risk and the incidence and severity of injury contributes to the understanding and control of risks in sport. Studies related to intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors should be focused on determining which factors cause an athlete's risk level to fall within the high-risk or low-risk regions of the population's risk distribution. Risk values can be used to derive risk contours, which illustrate the interdependence of incidence and severity on the development of effective risk mitigation strategies. The wide variation in the levels of risk across different sports is used to demonstrate the impact that athletes' perception and acceptance of risk have on their choice of sport. Finally, the use of incidence and severity data for predicting the prevalence of injury in a team and for the economic evaluation of intervention programmes is discussed.

Background:

Wide variations in the definitions and methodologies used for studies of injuries in rugby union have created inconsistencies in reported data and made interstudy comparisons of results difficult. The International Rugby Board established a Rugby Injury Consensus Group (RICG) to reach an agreement on the appropriate definitions and methodologies to standardise the recording of injuries and reporting of studies in rugby union. The RICG reviewed the consensus definitions and methodologies previously published for football (soccer) at a meeting in Dublin in order to assess their suitability for and application to rugby union. Following this meeting, iterative draft statements were prepared and circulated to members of the RICG for comment; a follow-up meeting was arranged in Dublin, at which time all definitions and procedures were finalised. At this stage, all authors confirmed their agreement with the consensus statement. The agreed document was presented to and approved by the International Rugby Board Council. Agreement was reached on definitions for injury, recurrent injury, non-fatal catastrophic injury, and training and match exposures, together with criteria for classifying injuries in terms of severity, location, type, diagnosis and causation. The definitions and methodology presented in this consensus statement for rugby union are similar to those proposed for football. Adoption of the proposals presented in this consensus statement should ensure that more consistent and comparable results will be obtained from studies of injuries within rugby union.

This paper is a revision and update of the recommendations developed following the 1st (Vienna) and 2nd (Prague) International Symposia on Concussion in Sport.1 2 The Zurich Consensus statement is designed to build on the principles outlined in the original Vienna and Prague documents and to develop further conceptual understanding of this problem using a formal consensus-based approach.

A detailed description of the consensus process is outlined at the end of this document. This document is developed for use by physicians, therapists, certified athletic trainers, health professionals, coaches and other people involved in the care of injured athletes, whether at the recreational, elite or professional level. While agreement exists pertaining to principal messages conveyed within this document, the authors acknowledge that the science of concussion is evolving and therefore management and return to play decisions remain in the realm of clinical judgement on an individualised basis. Readers are encouraged to copy and distribute freely the Zurich Consensus document and/or the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT2) card and neither is subject to any copyright restriction. The authors request, however that the document and/or the SCAT2 card be distributed in their full and complete format.

The following focus questions formed the foundation for the Zurich concussion consensus statement:

Background:

To investigate the effect of the proposed law changes (ELV) in Rugby Union on the physical demands of the players when compared to existing rules.

World Rugby Regulation 22 is the regulatory framework relating to artificial surfacing for the Game of Rugby binding on all Unions and Associations. The programme which aims to boost global participation, will for the first time, regulate and standardise the development, performance and maintenance of artificial turf worldwide through the appointment of World Rugby Preferred Turf Producers and World Rugby Accredited Test Institutes to ensure that the highest possible player welfare and performance standards are achieved.

World Rugby has just launched its Preferred Turf Producer scheme to ensure that installed pitches are both safe to play on and, through research and development, can evolve with the needs of Rugby.

World Rugby Regulation 22 is the regulatory framework relating to artificial surfacing for the Game of Rugby binding on all Unions and Associations. The programme which aims to boost global participation, will for the first time, regulate and standardise the development, performance and maintenance of artificial turf worldwide through the appointment of World Rugby Preferred Turf Producers and World Rugby Accredited Test Institutes to ensure that the highest possible player welfare and performance standards are achieved.

Test Institutes that meet the criteria set out by FIFA/World Rugby and pass an annual testing regime are eligible to perform tests in accordance with World Rugby Regulation 22.

Technology in the area of artificial playing surfaces has improved over time and artificial playing surfaces are widely used including in Rugby. World Rugby has produced the World Rugby Artificial Rugby Turf Performance Specification to set a minimum standard for artificial playing surfaces which may be used in rugby. The World Rugby Artificial Rugby Turf Performance Specification stipulates the testing and approval procedures which Manufacturers and other entities involved in the installation of artificial playing surfaces must comply with in order for their products to be approved for use in Rugby. The Game may not be played on any artificial surface which does not meet the World Rugby Artificial Rugby Turf Performance Specification, the requirements of Regulation 22 and Law 1 of the Laws of the Game. The World Rugby Artificial Rugby Turf Performance Specification will be amended over time as technology and research evolves in the area of artificial playing surfaces.

One Turf

To download the full Technical Document for the Specification of World Rugby Artificial Rugby Turf Performance, click the PDF icon at the top or bottom of the screen.

The aim of this study was to compare the incidence, nature, and cause of injuries sustained in rugby union played on artificial turf and grass. The study comprised a two-season investigation of match injuries sustained by six teams competing in Hong Kong's Division 1 and training injuries sustained by two teams in the English Premiership. Injury definitions and recording procedures were compliant with the international consensus statement on epidemiological studies of injuries in rugby union. There were no significant differences in the overall incidence (rate ratio = 1.42; P = 0.134) or severity (P = 0.620) of match injuries sustained on the two surfaces. The lower limb and joint (non-bone)/ligament injuries were the most common location and type of match injury on both surfaces; the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries was nearly four times higher on artificial turf than grass but the difference was not statistically significant (rate ratio = 3.82; P = 0.222). There were no significant differences in the overall incidence (rate ratio = 1.36; P = 0.204) or severity (P = 0.302) of training injuries sustained on artificial turf and grass. The lower limb and muscle/tendon injuries were the most common location and type of training injury on both surfaces. The results indicate that the overall risks of injury on artificial turf are not significantly different from those experienced on grass; however, the difference in the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries on the two surfaces is worthy of further study.

Definitions

1) Competitive tendering

1) Undrained pitches

  1. The Project Terms of Reference
  2. Project plan – timelines, design team, resources, funding
  3. Communication of the project plan
  4. Agree and delegate project actions
  5. Procurement and contractor appointment
  6. Review progress, monitor and review the project plan
  7. Project completion – commissioning and handover

1) Mowing

1) Player surface interactions

1) Climate

ARTIFICIAL TURF
UPDATE

The IRB is committed to implementing surveillance studies (SS) at all major IRB Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community. The aims of these studies are to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual Tournaments, to identify changing patterns of injury and to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of the IRB Chief Medical Officer.

Previous IRB surveillance studies reported the incidence and nature of match injuries sustained during the IRB Sevens World Series in 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2011/12 and the IRB Rugby World Cup Sevens 2009. This review continues the IRB’s on-going study by reporting injuries sustained during the 2012/13 IRB HSBC Sevens World Series and the IRB Rugby World Cup Sevens 2013. The review also combines the new data with data reported previously in order to provide a detailed analysis of the risks of injury in elite Rugby Sevens.

The IRB is committed to implementing surveillance studies (SS) at all major IRB Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community. The aims of these studies are to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual Tournaments, to identify changing patterns of injury and to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of the IRB Chief Medical Officer.

The IRB Junior World Rugby Trophy (JWRT) represents the second tier of competition for U-20 international teams. The IRB Junior World Championship (JWC) represents the first tier of competition for international teams competing at U-20 level and injury epidemiology results for these Tournaments are presented in a separate report (Fuller and Taylor, 2013). A previous report summarised the incidence and nature of match injuries sustained during the IRB JWRT in the period 2008 to 2012 (Fuller and Taylor, 2012). This review consolidates the previous information with data collected during the 2013 Tournament.

ARTIFICIAL TURF
UPDATE

Graham REA
Personal Protective Equipment and Sports Products
BSI Product Services

Confirmed by IRB EXCO - October 2012

Athletes with single organs are permitted to play Rugby pending individual assessment and clearance by the appropriately qualified medical practitioner. This clearance must consider the available published information on the risks of participation, the current health of the athlete and the potential negative impact of accidental collision.

This guideline only applies to athletes whose single organ is normally functioning and includes but is not limited to the following organs - eyes, kidneys, testicle, ovaries.

World Rugby supports moderate to low impact exercise during pregnancy. However, Rugby is not recommended during pregnancy due to the potential increased risk of injury to both unborn child and mother.

If a woman requests permission from a Union to participate in Rugby whilst pregnant, it should be highlighted that this is against the recommendation made by World Rugby. If this request is repeated, then it is recommended that this request be supported by written confirmation from an appropriately qualified medical practitioner who has highlighted the risks of participation in Rugby whilst pregnant and confirmed in writing that it is safe for this woman and unborn child to participate in Rugby.

Introduction

The purpose of this pre-participation assessment is to allow community Rugby players to undertake a questionnaire that will provide medical direction (if required) for medical issues identified.

This questionnaire does NOT take the place of a pre-participation healthcare professional assessment and should only be used when access to appropriately qualified healthcare professionals is not available.

Please complete the question below and you'll be advised as to the action you need to take before playing Rugby.

Section 2 presentations

The IRB is committed to implementing surveillance studies at all major IRB Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community. The aims of these studies are:

The Rugby Football Union and Premier Rugby Ltd first commissioned an injury surveillance study across the Premiership and England teams in 2002. The study is now conducted annually and The England Rugby Injury and Training surveillance study is the world’s largest study of professional rugby union injuries and training practices.

The Relative Age Effect (RAE) is a phenomenon that suggests that athletes at elite level are more likely to be born in the first 3 months after the eligibility cut-off date for a particular age group in sports. For example, with sports, such as football, which generally use a cut-off date of January 1st (any player born in 1998 is eligible to play at Under 15 level for the season beginning in 2013) players who compete at elite level of under-age sport are substantially more likely to be born in the months of January, February and March. Similarly if the cut-off date is July 1st then the likelihood of elite players being born in July, August and September increases dramatically. It has been shown that a change in eligibility cut-off date only serves to adjust the RAE to the months following the new date (Butler D; Butler R & Sherman M).

The IRB is committed to implementing surveillance studies (SS) at all major IRB Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community. The aims of these studies are to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual Tournaments, to identify changing patterns of injury and to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of the IRB Chief Medical Officer.

The IRB Junior World Championship (JWC) represents the first tier of competition for international teams competing at U-20 level and injury epidemiology results for these Tournaments are presented in a separate report (Fuller and Taylor, 2014). The IRB Junior World Rugby Trophy (JWRT) represents the second tier of competition for U-20 international teams. A previous report summarised the incidence and nature of match injuries sustained during the IRB JWRT in the period 2008 to 2013 (Fuller and Taylor, 2013). This review consolidates data collected during the 2014 Tournament with the data presented in the previous JWRT report.

The IRB is committed to implementing surveillance studies (SS) at all major IRB Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community. The aims of these studies are to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual Tournaments, to identify changing patterns of injury and to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of the IRB Chief Medical Officer.

The IRB Junior World Championship (JWC) represents the top tier of competition for U-20 international teams, while the IRB Junior World Rugby Trophy (JWRT) represents the second tier of competition for international teams competing at U-20 level. Results for the JWRT Tournaments are presented in a separate report (Fuller and Taylor, 2014). A previous report summarised the incidence and nature of match injuries sustained during the IRB JWC in the period 2008 to 2013 (Fuller and Taylor, 2013). This report presents results from the 2014 JWC and also consolidates these data with the data collected since 2008.

Objective:

Concussion prevention and management is at the very heart of World Rugby’s player welfare strategies and has been since the late 1970s. At the first Medical Advisory Committee meeting in 1977 concussion was recognised as a serious injury.

This guideline aims to protect the safety and welfare of Age Grade Rugby Players wishing to play Adult Rugby at both Elite and Participation/Community levels by trying to ensure that participants with broadly compatible physical development and skill levels play with and against each other.

World Rugby recognizes the inherent differences across Unions world-wide and seeks to provide direction in the management of this issue for Member Unions. Member Unions will be responsible for the development of their Union specific Policy.

This Guideline differentiates between Elite Adult Rugby and Community/Participation Rugby because of:

This guideline aims to protect the safety and welfare of age grade rugby players by trying to ensure that participants with broadly compatible physical development and skill levels play with and against each other.

World Rugby recognizes the inherent differences across Unions world-wide and seeks to provide direction in the management of this issue for Member Unions. Member Unions will be responsible for the development of their Union specific Policy.

This guideline considers the suitability of mixed gender teams and the circumstances where girls should be permitted to play contact Rugby with boys. The guideline takes under consideration the differences in physical and mental development of boys and girls at the different stages of progression through the established age-grade pathways within individual Unions.

World Rugby recognizes the inherent differences across Unions world-wide and seeks to provide direction in the management of this issue for Member Unions. Member Unions are responsible for the development of their Union specific Policy.

Whilst World Rugby has guidelines related to age bandings and Unions have player pathways based on age, there has been some interest in age and weight bandings for Age Grade Rugby. The establishment of weight guidelines within individual Member Unions is a complicated issue and if developed should consider the physical and mental developmental stages and progress of each individual child detailed below.

Objective:

An evaluation of the effect of the experimental law variations (ELVs) on match activities and match injuries resulting in player replacement was undertaken. Seventeen ELVs were trialled in the 2008 Air New Zealand Cup (ANZC) competition. Data were obtained from all ANZC matches from 2000 to 2008 (522 matches in all; 77 were played under the ELVs). Looking at match information from 2000 to 2008 enabled the effect of the ELVs to be distinguished from any underlying trends in match activities that may have been occurring. Information about injuries was obtained for the 2003 to 2005 seasons (pre-ELVs) and compared to the 2008 season.

Overall, the ELVs had little impact on points scoring, although the rate of penalty goals kicked per match showed a moderate decrease. There was a small increase in the proportion of tries scored from tap penalties and free kicks, and a small decrease in the proportion scored from lineout possession.

The ELVs were associated with a moderate decrease in lineouts per match. The proportions of full lineouts and quick throw-ins both showed increases associated with the ELVs, and the proportion of short lineouts in the ANZC decreased in 2008. The percentage of lineouts won by the team throwing the ball in did not change appreciably.

An ELV relating to the scrum engagement was trialled in the ANZC in 2008. The ELV changed the “Crouch”-“Touch”-“Pause”-“Engage” sequence by eliminating the verbal command “Pause”. Scrum numbers decreased slightly as a result of the ELV. The number of collapsed scrums per match was lower in 2007 (under C-T-P-E) and 2008 (under C-T-E) than high levels observed in 2005 and 2006, but the number remained higher than had been the case in 2000 through 2004.

There was a moderate increase in the number of kicks during play under the ELVs, up to 64 per match in 2008 from an average of 49 per match from 2000 to 2007. There was a substantial decrease in the number of mauls per match from 2000 to 2008; the ELVs were associated with a further reduction in maul numbers, which fell to 10 per match in 2008. There was a small increase in the number of rucks (post-tackle breakdowns) per match associated with the introduction of the ELVs. There was an average of 160 rucks per match in ANZC rugby in 2008 – ball retention at ruck time varied little from 2000 to 2008, and was between 91% and 94% over the entire period. There were an average of 15 free-kicks and 11 penalties awarded per match in 2008; the overall number of sanctions awarded increased by a small amount from 2007, but was similar to that seen from 2001 to 2006.

There was a moderate increase in the number of tackle injury replacements per 1000 player hours in 2008 when compared to the rate from 2003 to 2005. Although the increase in risk to each player per match is low (their chance of being replaced due to a tackle injury has increased from about 1.3% per match to about 3.2% per match), over the entire playing population such an increase would probably carry noticeable increases in costs to playing squads, and, for coaches, have an impact on player availability.

Other aspects of the sport (scrums, rucks, tackles, collisions) showed trivial to small increases in injury replacement rates. Given the low underlying rates, the changes did not represent any real concerns from a risk management perspective. The rate of injury replacements from mauls was so low that no clear effect could be determined.

The current trials of the experimental law variations have been conducted in part to examine what the actual, versus the intended, effects of the law changes has been. From an administrative and risk management perspective, such an approach is laudable, because the analyses associated with the trials permit decisions to be made with at least some degree of evidence about what the likely effects of the laws on match activities and player safety will be. Even so, it would be prudent to continue evaluating their effects for some time, as further changes may emerge in the future as coaches and tacticians adapt their strategies and tactics to both the way that match officials are administering the laws and the strategies and tactics other teams are adopting.

Two U-20 IRB Tournaments took place in 2011:

The HSBC Sevens World Series 2010/2011 involved 8 Tournaments over the period 4 December 2010 to 28 May 2011. This report summarises the key results obtained for the 12 core teams taking part in all 8 Tournaments and for 2 teams taking part in 5 of the Tournaments.

The study was conducted in accordance with the IRB approved consensus statement on definitions and procedures for injury surveillance studies in rugby union.

The IRB is committed to implementing surveillance studies (SS) at all major IRB Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community. The aims of these studies are to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual Tournaments, to identify changing patterns of injury and to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of the IRB Chief Medical Officer.

The IRB Junior World Championship (JWC) represents the top tier of competition for U-20 international teams. The IRB Junior World Rugby Trophy (JWRT) represents the second tier of competition for international teams competing at U-20 level and injury epidemiology results for these Tournaments are presented in a separate report (Fuller and Taylor, 2013). A previous report summarised the incidence and nature of match injuries sustained during the IRB JWC in the period 2008 to 2012 (Fuller and Taylor, 2012). This review consolidates the previous information with data collected during the 2013 Tournament.

Two U-20 World Cup rugby studies were undertaken during 2008 under the control of Dr Molloy (IRB – Medical Officer):

Objective:

CONCUSSION FACTS

At any level of Rugby, from grassroots all the way up to the professional game, understanding the dangers of lightning and the proper precautions to take will assist in minimising incidents from lightning strikes. The actions that should be taken, when there is a threat of a lightning strike, will depend on the level of information available to event/competition organisers or match officials.

The following action steps should be incorporated into any policy/guideline:

What are the indications for a request for a HIA to be completed?

What is the AVPU Scale?

Who completes the HIA?

Where will the HIA be completed?

What happens if a player will not co-operate with a HIA?

What are the instructions for the tandem gait?

Are there any restrictions applied to the temporary substitution?

What is the role of non-medical team staff in the HIA process?

What happens if the player has a simultaneous injury?

What are the follow-up processes of the HIA?

How can we use the results from a HIA2 (SCAT3) if there is no baseline data available for comparison?

Which HIA tools are used and when?

World Rugby is committed to implementing surveillance studies at all major World Rugby Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community.

The aims of these studies are:

  • 3rd IRB official World Cup
  • 3 Edmonton venues
  • 12 teams
  • 339 athletes (all consented to participate)

The IRB is committed to implementing surveillance studies at all major IRB Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community. The aims of these studies are:

As from September 1, 2015, the following terminology will be used by World Rugby when describing medical positions at World Rugby Tournaments. This terminology will be used for consistency in Host Union Agreements (HUA) and also Terms of Participation (ToP) documents which are the legal documents used by World Rugby to outline service expectations and responsibilities at Tournaments.

World Rugby recognises that differences in Tournament medical coverage exists and that financial and medical restrictions on Host Union will also influence services supplied during a Tournament but this terminology should be applicable to all World Rugby Tournaments. It is also acknowledged that one doctor may be responsible for more than one position outlined in this document.

  • Initial concept approval;
  • Full project plan assessment; and
  • Ethical Approval (not applicable in all cases).
  • Result either directly or indirectly in a benefit to Rugby;
  • Be applicable to the international Rugby community and not normally focused on local issues;
  • Not be a repeat of previous research but must be either novel or add to previous research; and
  • Be innovative.
  • Concussion must be taken extremely seriously to safeguard the long term welfare of Players.
  • Players suspected of having concussion must be removed from play and must not resume play in the match.
  • Players suspected of having concussion must be medically assessed.
  • Players suspected of having concussion or diagnosed with concussion must go through a graduated return to play protocol (GRTP).
  • Players must receive medical clearance before returning to play.

Artificial turf for rugby is here to stay and with quality so important in this area, World Rugby is at the forefront of ensuring only the very best and safest surfaces are approved around the world.

The Rugby Turf Performance Specification stipulates the testing and approval procedures which manufacturers and other entities involved in the installation of rugby turf must comply with in order for their products to be approved for use in rugby union. The game may not be played on any rugby turf which does not meet the requirements of World Rugby Regulation 22, the Rugby Turf Performance Specification, and Law 1 of the Laws of the Game. The Rugby Turf Performance Specification is an evolving document and will continue to be amended over time as technology and research develops in the area of rugby turf and other artificial playing surfaces.

Download the event information here.

Rugby is a dynamic game with a range of unique characteristics – and because of its nature, it has the attraction of being a game that is constantly evolving and changing. Some of these changes are seen as beneficial and some not so; the role of the World Rugby Game Analysis Department is to assess the impact on the shape and attraction of the modern game.

World Rugby is committed to implementing surveillance studies at all major World Rugby Tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community. The aims of these studies are:

World Rugby is committed to implementing surveillance studies at all major World Rugby tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community.

The aims of these studies are:

World Rugby is committed to implementing surveillance studies at all major World Rugby tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community.

The aims of these studies are:

World Rugby is committed to implementing surveillance studies at all major World Rugby tournaments and to disseminate the results within the Rugby community.

The Zika virus is a mosquito transferred infection. These mosquitoes bite in the day, particularly around dawn and dusk. The infection often occurs without symptoms but in some cases can cause fever, rash, severe headache, joint pain, and muscle or bone pain. Illness from Zika is usually not severe and does not require hospitalisation.

INTRODUCTION

Rugby union is a full contact sport with a relatively high overall risk of injury and a small specific risk of fatal and catastrophic spinal injury. Although catastrophic injuries in rugby union cause public concern and generate strong emotive reactions, the magnitude of society’s concern about this type of injury is often dominated by people’s perceptions rather than by actual levels of risk. This article assesses published values for the risk of catastrophic injuries in rugby union, evaluates these against the risk standards of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and compares the values with the risks associated with other common sport and non-sport activities.

Individual member Unions are strongly encouraged to develop their own guidelines and policies, and must use this Concussion Guidance as minimum standards.

This report is based on data collected from the 2010-2011 season and found that:

6 Nations

World Rugby Regulation 21, Schedule 3a - WADA International Standard for TUEs
  • Within community rugby the injury rate significantly decreases as the club's league level lowers. The injury rate was measured for three groups of clubs: Group A (league levels 3 & 4) had an injury rate of 19.4 per 1,000 playing hours; Group B (levels 5&6) 16.5 per 1,000 hours and Group C (levels 7, 8 & 9) 14.4 per 1,000 hours.
  • Collectively, most injuries occur in the lower limb (thigh, knee, lower leg, ankle), hence advice on injury prevention and management is included in the report which is being distributed to clubs, schools and coach educators.
  • The majority of injuries occur in contact and approximately half of all injuries occur in the tackle. The next most common cause is running, then the ruck. Few injuries occur in the scrum. This pattern is now able to be reflected in the coaching resources aimed at developing correct technique around the contact zone
  • Only 3% of injuries were the result of what the referee deemed to be foul play, but the RFU continues to work closely with the referees at the grassroots level to help inform how the laws of the game are applied to prevent injuries
  • An ambulance was needed for only 7% of injuries, equating to 1 in 45 matches (or around once every two seasons for a typical team)
RUISS 2000-2002 Report
1 - Introduction
Session 1 - Review and Update
Session 3 - Concussion

“Transmission of HIV is estimated to be 1:43 million games based on the estimated prevalence of HIV infection amongst athletes, the risk of percutaneous HIV transmission in health care and the risk of bleeding injury in American football. Individuals and sports medicine physicians should be aware of the principles of post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV infection.”

The Medicine, Science and Research Group was established by World Rugby to investigate and recommend areas of research considered to be important from a World Rugby and the sport of Rugby perspective. The Group contains members who represent World Rugby, Unions and Players and provide external expertise in the area of research. The Group meet regularly to discuss issues pertaining to World Rugby Research Strategy and to identify research priorities for World Rugby.

Members of the MSRG, at 1 January 2015, and their involvement in the group are (alphabetically):

  • The England Professional Rugby Injury Surveillance Project (PRISP) has reported on injury risk since 2002, is the most comprehensive injury dataset in Professional Rugby Union and provides objective analysis of trends in injury risk in the English professional game.
  • In 2013-14 the Project team successfully integrated existing surveillance processes with the Rugby Squad player electronic medical record, creating greater opportunities for injury and illness analysis.

AGE GRADE RUGBY PLAYERS

  • to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual Tournaments,
  • to identify changing patterns of injury, and
  • to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of the IRB Chief Medical Officer.
  • Professor Caroline Finch (Injury Prevention Researcher, Federation University Australia)
  • Professor Bob Cantu (Neurosurgeon, Boston University)
  • Professor Willie Stewart (Clinical Neuroscientist, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde and Glasgow University)
  • Dr Jon Patricios (Sports Physician, South Africa)

The overall risk (incidence and days absence) of match and training injury in the Premiership remained stable during the 2012-13 season and was within the “normal range” of season by season variation seen since the study began in 2002.

Practical implications

2.

Individuals undergoing sex reassignment of male to female before puberty are regarded as girls and women (female). This also applies to individuals undergoing female to male reassignment before puberty, such persons shall be regarded as boys and men (male). Individuals who have had sexual reassignment before puberty are considered to be female or male and will be allowed to play Rugby in the reassigned gender group.

Background information

  • Sharing of equipment, training facilities
  • Skin injury
  • Close contact – on field of play, accomadation
  • Off the field of play – travel, personal activities
  • Diverse populations

1.1 Players and Match Officials

injury that should be considered as a

www.asia-spinalinjury.org/publications/2006_Classif_worksheet.pdf

British Journal of Sports Medicine

is anything a player does within the playing enclosure that is against the letter and spirit of the Laws of the Game. It includes obstruction, unfair play, repeated infringements, dangerous play and misconduct which is prejudicial to the Game.

Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

To assess incidence, nature, and causes of injuries sustained in international Rugby Sevens.

To undertake a detailed, large scale epidemiological study of match injuries sustained by professional rugby union players in order to define their incidence, nature, severity, and causes.

To undertake a detailed epidemiological study of training injuries sustained by professional rugby union players in order to define their incidence, nature, severity, and causes.

The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of contact events in professional rugby union matches and to assess their propensity to cause injury.

Session 3 - Scrum Force Project

2.

Methods

2.

Methods

To examine factors associated with tackles in rugby union and to assess their impact on the risk of injury.

The tackle is the most dangerous facet of play in rugby union, but little is known about risk factors for tackle injuries.

2.

Methods

The objective of this paper is to gather all aspects of the International Rugby Board’s (IRB) approach to the prevention of head injuries so that they can be examined from a risk management perspective.

Key findings:

In January 2007 the International Rugby Board implemented a new law for scrum engagement aimed at improving player welfare by reducing impact force and scrum collapses. In New Zealand the new law was included in RugbySmart, an annual compulsory workshop for coaches and referees.

To determine whether protective headgear reduced the incidence of concussion in a pilot study of under 15 rugby union.

To read the text of this paper in full, visit:

Concussion is a serious problem in many contact sports, including rugby union football. The study's primary aim was to measure the efficacy of padded headgear in reducing the rates of head injury or concussion.

Competitive scrummaging is a unique and valued component of rugby union. Effective scrummaging requires a pack of forwards to produce forceful and coordinated actions to ensure dominance over the opposition to provide a platform for launching attacks and to disrupt opposition ball. Unfortunately, due to the physical nature of this phase of play there may be associations of the scrum with chronic degenerative injuries to the spine and on very rare occasions catastrophic cervical spinal injuries do occur.

Despite this, little is known about the forces and motions involved in rugby scrummaging, with very little objective data being collected since the advent of professionalism over ten years ago. A need has been identified to re-visit the biomechanical demands experienced by players during the rugby scrum, particularly during scrum engagement, with a view to understanding more about how to maximise performance and how to manage injury risk.

This research programme will investigate the biomechanics of rugby scrummaging with a view to delivering objective data regarding the techniques and practices required to perform effective and safe scrummaging. The testing will involve forward packs from many different levels of the game (e.g. school, academy, women, community club, elite club and international) from as many different parts of the rugby playing world as possible. Information will be obtained on the individual and combined forces being generated during scrum engagement and the secondary shove as well as the body motions which accompany effective and safe scrummaging. The testing will look at how the measured variables alter due to different scrum engagement and binding techniques and will also highlight any differences between machine-based scrummaging and live scrummaging against an opposition pack.

The Project Outcome Objectives are to:

To read the text of this paper in full, visit:

Acute simple concussion

It is well documented that the rate of injury is significantly lower for expert skiers and snowboarders than for beginners. A better understanding of the relation between the severity of injury and skill level is also needed for planning of injury prevention strategies.

Method

List of World Rugby Preferred Turf Producers

List of World Rugby Accredited Test Institutes

To download the full Regulation 22, click the PDF icon at the top or bottom of the screen.

programme was launched in December 2010 to redefine the use of artificial turf as a playing surface for Rugby and boost global Rugby participation.

For the first time a structure has been implemented to regulate and standardise the development, performance and maintenance of artificial turf worldwide through the appointment of Preferred Turf Producers and Accredited Test Institutes.

The

To read the text of this paper in full, visit:

For all matches, Unions, Associations, Rugby Bodies, Clubs, Players and Persons must ensure that the provisions relating to Players’ dress, set out in this Regulation, and the specifications set out in Schedule 1, are complied with in full. The Council may, from time to time, supplement, amend and/or modify, in whole or in part, the provisions relating to Players’ dress set out in this Regulation and/or the specifications set out in Schedule 1.

Agronomist -

Under competitive tendering, a tender pack is produced by a consultant. The tender pack would comprise the following:

Even with free draining soils, there are few instances where undrained pitches provide satisfactory year round playing conditions. Sandy soils over gravel or chalk may be an exception, but these are rare. On certain sites where the soils are naturally well drained, there may be local issues with a fluctuating water table which can lead to surface wetness and poor playing conditions during the winter months.

The height of cut should be maintained at between 30-34mm over the summer, raising this slightly to between 34-36mm for the winter. In combination with the cutting height, proper consideration must be given to cutting frequency. The sward must be cut at least once each week during the growing season and two to three times each week for a higher quality surface. This is very important if clippings are not to be collected. The direction of mowing should be varied where possible to maintain an upright grass growth habit. The facility to collect clippings should also be examined, as this will confer a much better playing surface and sward health.

For the maintenance of pitches there are two types of mowers available, cylinder mowers and rotary mowers. A cylinder mower when well maintained will provide an excellent quality of cut and can also enable the pitch to be striped; however cylinder mowers do require a lot of maintenance. The ultimate finish is achieved with a walk-behind/sit-on pedestrian cylinder mower e.g. Dennis Premier 36” (100 cuts per metre). A set of self-propelled, hydraulically driven triple gangs, capable of achieving at least 25-35 cuts per linear metre may be considered as an alternative for speed.

A good professional rotary mower can provide very good results, not quite to the standard of a cylinder mower, but with considerably less maintenance. A professional rotary mower with a grass collection facility will also helps with the removal of debris after pitch usage.

The interaction of the player with the surface is determined by surface infiltration rates, grass cover and height as well as player footwear. In broad terms, the surface characteristics are determined by the firmness of the surface, the amount of grip that the surface imparts to the player, and how well the footwear can penetrate the surface.

All of these surface characteristics can be assessed in an objective manner.

There are two types of grasses that are categorised by the way they fixate carbon during photosynthesis. Warm season grasses (C4 grasses) are very effective at capturing sunlight energy and tolerating high temperatures and drought and thus can function in warmer places of the world.

In cooler temperatures, C4 grasses cannot function effectively and in these climatic regions cool season grasses (C3 grasses) have evolved with a much better capacity to tolerate persistently lower/cooler temperatures.

The first step in selecting a desirable grass or mixture of grasses is to review the local climatic characteristics including knowledge of:

August 22, 2013

2.

Methods

2.

Methods

September 25, 2014

E-mail:

Background

Introduction

There is increasing awareness of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the young and especially in sport. It has been reported that the risk of sudden cardiac death may be increased up to 2.8 times in competitive athletes compared with non-athletes1. Despite this increased risk, the incidence of SCD is low in this young athletic population (< 35 years), and a recent review estimated it to be between 1-3 athletes per 100 000, per year2.

The Laussane Cardiac Screening Recommendations3 reported that in athletes under 35 years of age, 50% of sudden cardiac death (SCD) was due to congenital anatomical heart disease and cardiomyopathies and 10% had early-onset atherosclerotic heart disease. 40% of SCD occurred in athletes under 18 years, 33% under 16 years and the male/female ratio was 9/1.

It is acknowledged that approximately 30% of athletes suffering sudden cardiac death will not be identified even with intensive cardiac screening4. It has also been reported that approximately 30% of athletes suffering sudden cardiac arrest will not respond to resuscitation even with immediate access to an AED (Automated External Defibrillator)5.

These IRB 2012 Cardiac Screening Guidelines have been developed by the IRB Cardiac Screening Working Group with support from an independent cardiac expert. The recommendations have given due consideration to the different geographical, economical, medical expertise and social levels that exist across and within the member Unions of World Rugby. As a result of these logistical differences, a tiered approach to cardiac screening in Rugby is recommended. However, where practical, World Rugby recognizes that best practice cardiac screening should include cardiac questionnaire, physical examination and ECG.

General medical history

  • to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual Tournaments,
  • to identify changing patterns of injury, and
  • to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of the IRB Chief Medical Officer.

Injury surveillance is now considered to be an important obligation for professional sporting bodies. However, the degree to which it is successfully undertaken varies substantially between different sports.

The England Rugby Injury and Training surveillance study is unique in the way that it measures both the risk of injury sustained during training and matches.

The England Rugby Injury and Training surveillance study is admired for its robust methodology, the high level of compliance from respondents and for the number of scientific publications it has generated. The consistent methodology and mandated data collection by club medical and strength and conditioning staff has led to annually consistent results enabling the results from each season to be compared with each other.

The England Rugby Injury and Training surveillance study is pivotal in both providing the baseline data needed to assess trends in injury and in guiding further investigation into injuries that are common, severe or increasing in incidence.

This report presents the high level findings from the 2011-12 England Rugby Injury and Training surveillance study and compares them with the results from the 8 previous Injury and Training surveillance seasons (2002-03, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08, 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11). These results are intended to inform discussion about the direction of the injury risk management programme for elite rugby in England.

In line with the international interest in concussion management, during the 2012-13 and 2013-14 seasons there will be a focus on understanding the time course of symptom resolution of concussion injuries.

In addition, for the first time we will examine the influence of training practice and prior injury, alongside other risk factors, on the risk of sustaining an injury. The goal of this aspect of the work is to improve the ability to predict injury.

This report found that:

RAE emphasised in the more physical sports

2.

Methods

2.

Methods

To determine the frequency and nature of injuries sustained during the IRB 2011 Rugby World Cup.

World Rugby has developed a risk management strategy based around

  • The intensity of Elite Rugby;
  • The physicality and fitness associated with Elite Rugby;
  • The ability to monitor regulations and protocols specific to Elite Rugby;
  • The expert professional advice and support normally available to Elite Rugby Players; and
  • The disparity between Community Rugby played in different Unions making the setting of common guidelines inappropriate.

Application

Application

The approach of other sports to the issue

To examine the epidemiology of match injuries in southern hemisphere professional rugby union and assess the impact of the International Rugby Board (IRB) Experimental Law Variations.

Introduction

Junior World Championship

Summary of results

  1. JWT (Chile) – 8 teams: April 2008
  2. JWC (Wales) – 16 teams: June 2008

to determine the incidence, nature and causes of injuries sustained during the International Rugby Board (IRB) Rugby World Cup 2007.

  • A concussion is a brain injury.
  • All concussions are serious.
  • Concussions can occur without loss of consciousness.
  • All athletes with any symptoms following a head injury must be removed from playing or training and must not return to activity until all symptoms have cleared. Specifically, return to play on the day of any suspected concussion is forbidden. Recognise and remove to help prevent further injury or even death. Concussion can be fatal. Most concussions recover with physical and mental rest.

WRWC Format

  1. Live data: in circumstances, where live data is available from local meteorological services along with advice from an expert, this data should be used to assist in the decision about whether to allow the event/match to commence, continue or be abandoned.
  2. Determination of a chain of command which clearly identifies the person with ultimate responsibility to stop the event, either temporarily or indefinitely or to evacuate the venue is vital. It should be ensured that this person is familiar with local protocols and is provided with accurate and up to date information.
  3. Communication with local weather services or tracking of weather alerts should be established in advance of any event.
  • Head injury where diagnosis not apparent
  • Possible behaviour changes
  • Possible confusion
  • Injury event witnessed with potential to result in a concussive injury
  • Other symptoms or signs suggesting a suspected concussion

The AVPU Scale is used to assess the level of consciousness. It has only four possible outcomes:

The Team Doctor will complete a HIA on a player with suspicious symptoms or signs UNLESS the Team Doctor assigns this responsibility to the MDD prior to the commencement of the game. The Team Doctor, in cases of emergency, can assign HIA responsibility to the MDD during a game.

In Sevens, the HIA is completed by the Team Physician, Match Day Doctor or World Rugby Tournament Team Physician.

The HIA will be completed in the medical room or an agreed private area. If the HIA cannot be completed in the medical room because the medical room is too distant from the field of play, the MDD, with the Team Doctors, will identify an agreed and appropriate area PRIOR to the commencement of the game.

A player failing to co-operate with a HIA should be assumed to have concussion and be removed permanently from the game.

Participants are instructed to stand with their feet together behind a starting line (the test is best done with footwear removed). Then, they walk in a forward direction as quickly and as accurately as possible along a 38mm wide (sports tape), 3-metre line with an alternate foot heel-to-toe gait ensuring that they approximate their heel and toe on each step. Once they cross the end of the 3m line, they turn 180 degrees and return to the starting point using the same gait. A total of four trials are done and the best time is retained. Athletes should complete the test in 14 seconds. Athletes fail the test if they step off the line, have a separation between their heel and toe, or if they touch or grab the examiner or an object. In this case, the time is not recorded and the trial repeated, if appropriate.

Yes. The temporary substitution may not take a penalty kick for goal or conversion, except in Sevens Rugby. If the temporary substitute is given a red or yellow card, the penalty associated with this infringement will apply to the player undergoing the HIA.

Non-medical staff can alert their respective team medical staff that a HIA should be undertaken. Non-medical staff cannot overrule or question a call for a HIA requested by the Team Medical Staff, MDD or referee.

Apart from a blood injury, the assessment of a simultaneous injury and the HIA must be completed within the 10-minute period allowed for the HIA or the substitution will become permanent.

All players who have a HIA completed during a game irrespective of the outcome MUST have:

World Rugby has reviewed over 800 baseline SCAT results and provides guidance within the HIA2 for non-concussed Rugby players. Clinical suspicion should always override a normal HIA1, 2 or 3 result.

During match
Post-match
36-48 post-match
Player removed permanently from field of play

HIA1 completed (for research purposes)

HIA2 completed

HIA3 completed

Head injury - HIA positive (player removed permanently from game)

HIA1 completed

HIA2 completed

HIA3 completed

Head injury - HIA negative (player returns to play and monitored)

HIA1 completed

HIA2 completed

HIA3 completed

Concussive symptoms post-game at ground

HIA2 completed

HIA3 completed

Concussive symptoms after leaving ground

HIA3 completed

Team Doctor (TD) video review confirms HIA should have been undertaken, or on questioning player post video review, TD confirms the player had or has suspicious signs or symptoms

HIA3 completed

  • to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female
  • players at individual Tournaments,
  • to identify changing patterns of injury, and
  • to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of World Rugby’s Chief Medical Officer.
  • to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual Tournaments,
  • to identify changing patterns of injury, and to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of the IRB Chief Medical Officer.

All applications must be made in English and budgets submitted in pounds sterling.

From 2016 onwards, the assessment of projects starting in a particular calendar year will be assessed in the previous calendar year.

World Rugby reserves the right to fund a study in its entirety or only part thereof.

Funding:

Introduction

Session 1 - Union update

Artificial turf has many advantages, requiring less maintenance than natural grass, allowing for rugby to be played in parts of the world where natural grass does not grow well or on grounds that suffer from heavy usage.

A structure has been implemented to regulate and standardise the development, performance and maintenance of rugby turf worldwide through the appointment of World Rugby Preferred Turf Producers and Accredited Test Institutes.

6 Nations

6 Nations Analysis 2004
6 Nations Analysis 2005
6 Nations Analysis 2006
6 Nations Analysis 2007
6 Nations Analysis 2008
6 Nations Analysis 2009
6 Nations Analysis 2010
6 Nations Analysis 2011
6 Nations Analysis 2012
6 Nations Analysis 2013
6 Nations Analysis 2014
6 Nations Analysis 2015
6 Nations analysis 2016
6 Nations analysis 2017

World Rugby U20 Championship

JWC Analysis 2009
JWC Analysis 2010
JWC Analysis 2011
JWC Analysis 2012
JWC Analysis 2013
JWC Analysis 2014
U20 WC Analysis 2016

World Rugby U20 Trophy

JWRT Analysis 2011
JWRT Analysis 2012
JWRT Analysis 2014

Rugby World Cup

RWC Analysis 2003
RWC Analysis 2007
RWC Analysis 2011
RWC Analysis 2015

The Rugby Championship

RC Analysis 2012
RC Analysis 2013
RC Analysis 2014
RC Analysis 2015
RC Analysis 2016

Tri Nations

Tri Nations Analysis 2004
Tri Nations Analysis 2005
Tri Nations Analysis 2006
Tri Nations Analysis 2007
Tri Nations Analysis 2008
Tri Nations Analysis 2009
Tri Nations Analysis 2010
Tri Nations Analysis 2011

Women’s Rugby World Cup

WRWC Analysis 2006
WRWC Analysis 2010
WRWC Analysis 2014

Women’s 6 Nations

Women’s 6 Nations 2008
Women’s 6 Nations 2009
Women’s 6 Nations 2010
Women’s 6 Nations 2011
Women’s 6 Nations 2012
Women’s 6 Nations 2013
Women’s 6 Nations 2014

Sevens World Series

Sevens Analysis 2011-12
Sevens Analysis 2012-13
Sevens Analysis 2013-14
Womens Sevens Analysis 2014-15
Sevens Analysis 2014-15

Regional Competitions

European Nations Cup 14-16
World Rugby Tblisi Cup 2015
World Rugby Nations Cup 2015
World Rugby Pacific Nations Cup 2015
  • to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female
  • players at individual Tournaments,
  • to identify changing patterns of injury, and
  • to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of World Rugby’s Chief Medical Officer.
  • to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual tournaments,
  • to identify changing patterns of injury, and
  • to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of World Rugby’s Chief Medical Officer.
  • to record and analyse injuries and illnesses sustained by male and female players at individual tournaments,
  • to identify changing patterns of injury, and
  • to bring injury-related areas of concern to the attention of World Rugby’s Chief Medical Officer.

The aims of these studies are:

There is currently no vaccine to prevent Zika virus and no specific treatment.

We believe that rugby is a fantastic sport for children, and when inactivity and obesity are major societal issues, the health and social benefits of rugby participation massively outweigh any potential drawbacks.

Concussion is the number one injury risk in contact and collision sports. Identification of concussive events is critical to optimise injury management and, as identified by Quarrie and Murphy, to undertake accurate injury surveillance studies.

The different medical terms include:

The assessment showed that the risks of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union in England (0.8/100 000 per year), Ireland (0.9/100 000 per year) and Argentina (1.9/100 000 per year) were within the HSEs ‘acceptable’ region of risk (0.1–2/100 000 per year), whilst the risks in New Zealand (4.2/100 000 per year), Australia (4.4/100 000 per year) and Fiji (13/100 000 per year) were within the ‘tolerable’ region of risk (2–100/100 000 per year). The risk of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union was generally lower than or comparable with the levels reported for a wide range of other collision sports, such as ice hockey (4/100 000 per year), rugby league (2/100 000 per year) and American Football (2/100 000 per year). In addition, the risk of catastrophic injury in rugby union was comparable with that experienced by most people in work-based situations and lower than that experienced by motorcyclists, pedestrians and car occupants.

These guidelines apply to all male and female Rugby players including adults (over 18 years), adolescents (18 and under) and children (12 and under). Unions can adjust these age levels upwards at their discretion.

6 Nations Analysis 2004.pdf
Standard TUE Application Form
Session 4 - RWC and CG

The full policy is available

  • Dr Filippo Bottiglia – FIR – Subject expert
  • Dr Mike England – RFU – Community Rugby and Academic research experience
  • Dr Colin Fuller – World Rugby Risk Management Consultant – Rugby, Non-Rugby and Academic research experience
  • Mark Harrington – World Rugby Head of Technical Services
  • Dr Simon Kemp – RFU – Northern Hemisphere representative
  • Rob Nichol – IRPA – Player representative - CMO appointee
  • Dr Ken Quarrie – NZRU – Southern Hemisphere representative
  • Dr Martin Raftery – World Rugby Chief Medical Officer – Chair
  • Clint Readhead – SARU – CMO appointee
  • Dr Preston Wiley – Rugby Canada – Tier 2 Rugby and Academic research experience
  • Dr Mutsuo Yamada – JRU – High Performance Tier 2 representative

The key findings from the 2013-14 season were:

The Council, at its recent Annual Meeting agreed that 90 minutes be adopted as the maximum playing time permitted in one day for Age Grade Rugby Players.

In association with the above decision the Council also agreed that Unions be requested to ensure that Unions engaging in Age Grade Rugby consider their duty of care and that all necessary safety requirements are adhered to.

Yours sincerely,

Previous IRB Rugby Sevens surveillance studies reported the incidence and nature of match injuries sustained during the IRB Sevens World Series in 2008/09, 2010/11, 2011/12 and 2012/13 and the IRB Rugby World Cup Sevens in 2009 and 2013. This report continues the IRB’s on-going study of Rugby Sevens by reporting injuries and illnesses sustained during the 2013/14 IRB HSBC Sevens World Series. The report also describes, for the first time, illnesses and training injuries sustained during the 2013/14 Rugby Sevens Series.

The Terms of Reference outline the objectives and responsibilities of this Group as:

The objective of this Independent Concussion Advisory Group is to assist the IRB to further develop, implement and monitor a world class concussion risk management plan for the entire sport.

This Group will be responsible for reviewing the existing and monitoring future concussion risk management plans, identifying deficiencies and making recommendations for improving the safety and welfare of players with respect to concussion. This Group will also support the IRB by identifying new and evolving issues within the science around concussion which will assist the IRB to retain a world class risk management strategy.

The Independent Concussion Advisory Group will not be required to undertake activities with respect to the development or implementation of concussion risk management strategies but will support the IRB Chief Medical Officer or IRB Working Groups in the development and implementation of strategic interventions.

On isolated occasions, feedback of IRB concussion documents may be sort.

This Group requested that a Concussion Guidance for General Public document be developed (attached with this email). Utilizing previous documents as CMO of the IRB, I developed a draft document which was modified with input from this Advisory Group. This document was approved by the IRB Board on March 12, 2014 for public distribution.

335 training injuries that led to time lost from training and/or match play were reported in the 2012-13 season. A third of all reported injuries occurred in training (rugby skills and strength and conditioning combined), a potentially controllable environment

Traditionally, medical policies had been developed within World Rugby by first world medical personnel for first world medical environments and these were imposed on non-first world Member Unions whether or not national healthcare facilities were compatible with the requirements of the policies. The role of World Rugby is to identify medical risks within the Game, develop 'best practice' Guidelines and disseminate these Guidelines to all Unions for adaptation to each Union's unique environment. World Rugby Medical Guidelines now recognise that strategies may be different in the various jurisdictions.

Although the exact implementation strategy may vary from country to country, the underpinning World Rugby philosophy of player welfare should be the same across all countries. Each national governing body for Rugby has a responsibility to review the guidance prepared by World Rugby and to implement the guidance in a way that is demonstrably appropriate to the circumstances within that country.

It is also possible that strategies not only vary from country to country but may also vary within different sectors of the game within a single country. For example, an appropriate strategy in professional Rugby may be different from an appropriate strategy at the community level of Rugby.

In summary, each Union has the responsibility to adapt the 'best practice' guidelines developed by World Rugby to the local environment with a view to implementing 'good practice' within their jurisdiction.

3.

Individuals undergoing sex reassignment from male to female or female to male after puberty will be eligible for participation in female or male Rugby respectively, where all of the following conditions are demonstrated to have been satisfied:

Heat illness can range from heat exhaustion to heat stroke, with heat stroke being a

Infections can be transmitted by person to person contact, by common source exposure or by vector-borne transmission.

The primary focus of attention should be on primary prevention by use of hygiene measures, use of immunisation (vaccinations) and use of interventions to prevent secondary spread of infection. Secondary prevention measures include prevention of recurrence and prevention of onward spread of infection from a source patient.

Education of players in key aspects of infection is a key element of prevention.

An appropriate room or area for the use of players (from both participating teams) and
match officials (including referees and assistant referees) who are injured or ill. Such a facility will include:

potential

Final grading of impairment is summarised as:

2010; 44: 159-167.

Law 10.4 - Dangerous Play and Misconduct

Copyright © 2008 Sports Medicine Australia Published by Elsevier Ltd

Introduction

Introduction

Session 4 - Concussion

The studies were conducted in accordance with the definitions and protocols described in the IRB approved consensus statement on definitions and procedures for injury surveillance studies in rugby union (Fuller et al., 2007).

The definition of injury was: ‘Any injury sustained during a PNC Tournament match that prevents a player from taking a full part in all normal training activities and/or match play for more than one day following the day of injury’. Incidents where a player’s absence from match play and/or training was caused by training activities, illness or other medical conditions not related to a PNC match were not included. A recurrent injury was defined as: ‘An injury (as defined above) of the same type and at the same site as an index injury and which occurs after a player’s return to full participation from the index injury’. Injuries were classified using the appropriate OSICS 8 Code (Orchard, 1995). Injury location, type and cause together with the event leading to the injury were also recorded.

Injury severity was defined as the number of days a player was injured. A player was deemed to be ‘injured’ until he could undertake full normal training and be available for match selection, whether or not he was actually selected. Medical staff were required to make an informed clinical judgement about a player’s fitness to train/play on those days when players were not scheduled to train or play. Injured players were followed after each Tournament to obtain their return to play date.

The complete lists of categories and sub-categories used for injury locations and injury types are provided in the rugby injury consensus publication (Fuller et al., 2007).

Differences in players anthropometric data were assessed using unpaired t-tests; differences in the incidences of injury were assessed using z-tests. Statistical significance was accepted at the p≤ 0.05 level.

All studies were conducted in accordance with the definitions and protocols described in the IRB approved consensus statement on definitions and procedures for injury surveillance studies in rugby union (Fuller et al., 2007).

The definition of injury was: ‘Any injury sustained during a Women’s Seven’s Challenge Cup, Sevens World Series or Rugby World Cup Tournament match that prevents a player from taking a full part in all normal training activities and/or match play for more than one day following the day of injury’. Incidents where a player’s absence from match play and/or training was caused by training activities, illness or other medical conditions not related to a Seven’s Challenge Cup, Sevens World Series or Rugby World Cup Sevens match were not included. A recurrent injury was defined as: ‘An injury (as defined above) of the same type and at the same site as an index injury and which occurs after a player’s return to full participation from the index injury’. Injuries were classified using the appropriate OSICS 8 Code (Orchard, 1995). Injury location, type and cause together with the event leading to the injury were also recorded.

Injury severity was determined by the number of days a player was injured. A player was deemed to be ‘injured’ until she could undertake full normal training and be available for match selection, whether or not she was actually selected. Medical staff were required to make an informed clinical judgement about a player’s fitness to train/play on those days when players were not scheduled to train or play. Injured players were followed after each Tournament to obtain their return to play date.

The complete lists of categories and sub-categories used for injury locations and injury types are provided in the rugby injury consensus publication (Fuller et al., 2007).

Differences in players anthropometric data were assessed using unpaired t-tests; differences in the incidences, mean severity and proportions of injuries were assessed using z-tests and differences in median severity using a Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance was accepted at the p=0.05 level, although it is recognised that this could identify some differences that occur by chance due to the number of statistical comparisons being made in the study.

All studies were conducted in accordance with the definitions and protocols described in the IRB approved consensus statement on definitions and procedures for injury surveillance studies in rugby union (Fuller et al., 2007).

The definition of injury was: ‘Any injury sustained during a Sevens World Series or Rugby World Cup Sevens Tournament match that prevents a player from taking a full part in all normal training activities and/or match play for more than one day following the day of injury’. Incidents where a player’s absence from match play and/or training was caused by training activities, illness or other medical conditions not related to a Sevens World Series or Rugby World Cup Sevens match were not included. A recurrent injury was defined as: ‘An injury (as defined above) of the same type and at the same site as an index injury and which occurs after a player’s return to full participation from the index injury’. Injuries were classified using the appropriate OSICS 8 Code (Orchard, 1995). Injury location, type and cause together with the event leading to the injury were also recorded.

Injury severity was determined by the number of days a player was injured. A player was deemed to be ‘injured’ until he could undertake full normal training and be available for match selection, whether or not he was actually selected. Medical staff were required to make an informed clinical judgement about a player’s fitness to train/play on those days when players were not scheduled to train or play. Injured players were followed after each Tournament to obtain their return to play date.

The complete lists of categories and sub-categories used for injury locations and injury types are provided in the rugby injury consensus publication (Fuller et al., 2007).

Differences in players anthropometric data were assessed using unpaired t-tests; differences in the incidences, mean severity and proportions of injuries were assessed using z-tests and differences in median severity using a Mann-Whitney U test. Statistical significance was accepted at the p=0.05 level, although it is recognised that this could identify some differences that occur by chance due to the number of statistical comparisons being made in the study.

  • 636 match injuries at Premiership Rugby clubs were reported in 2009-10; an average of 1.6 injuries per match leading to an average absence from playing and training of 22 days
  • The likelihood of sustaining an injury dropped from 100 injuries per 1,000 hours in 2008-9 to 80 injuries per 1,000 hours in 2009-10
  • Small decrease in the number of knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries, which had significantly affected the figures in 2008-9, but injuries fell across all levels of severity
  • Reduced likelihood and reduced severity meant that the average days’ absence per club, per match, fell from 46 days in 2008-9 to 34 days in 2009-10, a reduction of 26%
  • Largest drop seen in the incidence of recurrence of injury. Days absence per 1,000 hours due to recurrence of an injury dropped from 485 in 2008-9 to 207 in 2009-10, a decrease of 43% and reported as “a marker of the completeness of rehabilitation by Premiership Rugby and England medical and conditioning staff and a very encouraging trend”

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine

  • To establish the biomechanics of different scrummaging techniques to assess potential injury risk
  • To identify playing, coaching and match official techniques that provide for effective scrummaging with a reduced risk of serious injury to players
  • To provide data and information to enable Law amendments to be considered in relation to the scrum

British Journal of Sports Medicine

  • Which symptom scale and which sideline assessment tool is best for diagnosis and/or follow up?
  • How extensive should the cognitive assessment be in elite athletes?
  • How extensive should clinical and neuropsychological (NP) testing be at non-elite level?
  • Who should do/interpret the cognitive assessment?
  • Is there a gender difference in concussion incidence and outcomes?

Portable Global Positioning Systems (GPS) were worn by players in numerous positions (e.g. Prop, Hooker, Lock, No. 8, No. 7, Half-back, Wing, Fullback etc) during competitive rugby games. The players were competing in the Air New Zealand Cup (Premier Provincial 1st XV [Existing Rules - ANZC]) or the Provincial Development Competition (Provincial 2nd XV [New Rules - ELV]). Players were often replaced (substituted) before the end of games (normally during the second half) and therefore the data will be presented in “first half” analysis or “per minute” analysis. The GPS recorded distance covered, time and velocity. This was downloaded and is summarised below.